Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 163–172 | Cite as

Simulation of the submerged energy nozzle-mold water model system using laser-optical and computational fluid dynamics methods

  • Hans-Jürgen Odenthal
  • Herbert Pfeifer
  • Ina Lemanowicz
  • Rainer Gorissen


The present work describes quantitative digital particle image velocimetry measurements of a full-scale water model of a thin slab mold. Different casting speeds and two submerged entry nozzles with one and two outlet ports have been investigated. The flow pattern of the single-port nozzle shows a counterclockwise-rotating double vortex that is nearly steady-state but leads to high stationary surface waves. The flow jets out of the two-port nozzle oscillate and produce a transient flow pattern with low wave amplitudes. The amplitudes for the one-port nozzle show a linear variation with the volumetric flow rate. The experimental results lead to a good interpretation of the flow phenomena and are used to validate steady-state numerical simulations with the commercial program, CFX, on the basis of the Reynolds equations. To describe anisotropic turbulence effects, the Reynolds stress model (RSM) is used for the flat single-port nozzle and the standard k-ɛ model for the mold flow. The calculated mean velocities and wave amplitudes, predicted from pressure distribution at the water surface, are generally in the consensus of the experimental data.


Mold Material Transaction Particle Image Velocimetry Casting Speed Submerged Entry Nozzle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© ASM International & TMS-The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Jürgen Odenthal
    • 1
  • Herbert Pfeifer
    • 1
  • Ina Lemanowicz
    • 2
  • Rainer Gorissen
    • 3
  1. 1.the Institute for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering in Metallurgy, RWTH AachenAachenGermany
  2. 2.SMS Demag AGDüsseldorfGermany
  3. 3.Vodafone TeleCommerce GmbH System ArchitectureRatingenGermany

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