Oxidation of low carbon steel in multicomponent gases: Part II. Reaction mechanisms during reheating
Oxidation behavior of low carbon steel during reheating in an industrial walking-beam steel reheat furnace was investigated. It was observed that scaling (oxidation) rates were reduced by reducing the input air/fuel ratio to the furnace, thereby lowering concentrations of free oxygen in the combustion products from about 3 to 1.5 pct. Laboratory experiments involving isothermal and nonisothermal oxidation were carried out in atmospheres consisting of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen. A general equation for the prediction of weight gains due to oxidation during reheating, using isothermal oxidation rate constants, was developed. The prediction of weight gains from nonisothermal oxidation conducted in the laboratory was poor, owing to a separation of the scale from the metal substrate which took place at about 900 °C. The predicted weight gains during reheating in the industrial reheat furnace indicated that oxidation rates during reheating were intermediate between linear and parabolic, especially during reheating with high air/fuel ratio. However, the linear mechanism predominated. Laboratory isothermal experiments for oxidation in atmospheres containing free oxygen showed that the magnitude of the linear oxidation rates was determined by the oxygen concentration in the atmosphere. It was concluded that the observed reduction in scaling rates during reheating of low carbon steel in the industrial reheat furnace was a result of the lower free oxygen level in the furnace atmosphere.
KeywordsMaterial Transaction Furnace Atmosphere Scale Layer Oxidation Rate Constant Weight Gain Curve
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