Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 545–561 | Cite as

Aging and tempering behavior of iron-nickel-carbon and iron-carbon martensite

  • M. J. Van Genderen
  • M. Isac
  • A. Böttger
  • E. J. Mittemeijer
Article

Abstract

The aging at room temperature (RT) and the tempering behavior in the temperature range 293 to 973 K of ternary iron-nickel-carbon martensite (containing 14.4 at. pct Ni and 2.35 at. pct C) was investigated principally by using X-ray diffractometry to analyze changes in the crystalline structure and differential scanning calorimetry to determine heats of transformation and activation energies. These techniques also were used in the parallel study performed in this work of the tempering behavior of FeC martensite (containing about 4.4 at. pct C) in the temperature range 298 to 773 K. Analysis of the structural changes revealed that in both FeNiC and FeC the following processes occurred: (1) formation of carbon enrichments and development of a periodic arrangement of planar carbon-rich regions up to 423 K; (2) precipitation of ε/η transition carbide and transformation of a part of the austenite into ferrite under simultaneous enrichment with carbon of the remaining austenite (between 423 and 523 K); (3) decomposition of the retained austenite into ferrite and cementite between 523 and 723 K (only partly for FeNiC); (4) precipitation of cementite between 523 and 723 K; and (5) for FeNiC, reformation of austenite from ferrite and cementite above 773 K. A short comparative discussion concerning the first stage of martensite decomposition for FeC, FeNiC, FeN, and FeNiN martensites is given.

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Copyright information

© ASM International & TMS-The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Van Genderen
    • 1
  • M. Isac
    • 2
  • A. Böttger
    • 3
  • E. J. Mittemeijer
    • 3
  1. 1.Hoogovens Research LaboratoryIJmuidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.McGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.the Laboratory for Materials ScienceDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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