Microstructural Evolution and Corrosion Behavior of ZnNi-Graphene Oxide Composite Coatings

  • M. Y. Rekha
  • Chandan SrivastavaEmail author


This work correlates microstructural evolution and corrosion behavior of electrodeposited ZnNi-graphene oxide composite coatings. Incorporation of GO improved the coating compactness and decreased the surface roughness. Structural characterization revealed that the pure ZnNi coating contained only intermetallic phases (γ-NiZn3, γ-Ni3Zn22, and γ-Ni5Zn21), whereas ZnNi-GO coatings contained Zn phase along with the intermetallics. Addition of GO gradually increased the volume fraction of the Zn phase and reduced its crystallite size. With the addition of GO, a noticeable and systematic variation in the growth texture of the coatings was also observed. Corrosion resistance of the composite coating increased with increase in the addition of GO. Microstructural characterization revealed that the composite coating contained Zn phase along with the GO forming a Zn-GO matrix containing intermetallics. Further investigation of the GO extracted from the electrolyte bath revealed that during the electrodeposition process, Zn nucleated and grew over the GO in the electrolyte itself which led to the co-existence of Zn and GO in the coating matrix. Enhancement in the coating compactness, increase in the Zn phase which is sacrificial, and the impermeability of the GO led to the high corrosion resistance of the ZnNi-GO composite coatings when compared to the pure ZnNi coating.



The authors acknowledge the research grant received from Nano-Mission Govt. of India. The authors acknowledge the electron microscopy facility available at AFMM, IISc Bangalore.


  1. 1.
    1.N. Priyantha, P. Jayaweera, A. Sanjurjo, K. Lau, F. Lu, and K. Krist: Surf. Coat. Tech., 2003, vol. 163-164, pp. 31-36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Q Jiang, Q Miao, WP Liang, F Ying, F Tong, Y Xu, BL Ren, ZJ Yao, PZ Zhang (2014) Electrochim Acta 115:644-56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    3.N.V. Phuong, M.S. Park, C.D. Yim, B.S. You, and S. Moon: Corros. Sci., 2018, vol. 136, pp. 201-09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    4.F.A.F. Miranda, I.C.P. Margarit, O.R. Mattos, O.E. Barcia, and R. Wiart: Corrosion, 1999, vol. 55(8), pp. 732-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    5.C.N.P. Kumar, T.V. Venkatesha, K. Vathsala, and K.O. Nayana: J. Coat. Technol. Res., 2012, vol. 9(1), pp. 71-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    6.C.N. Panagopoulos, K.G. Georgarakis, and P.E. Agathocleous: Tribol. Int., 2003, vol. 36(8), pp. 619-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    7.K.R. Baldwin, M.J. Robinson, and C.J.E. Smith: Corros. Sci., 1993, vol. 35(5-8), pp. 1267-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    8.S. Ghaziof, and W. Gao: Appl. Surf. Sci., 2014, vol. 311, pp. 635-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    9.D.A. Wright, N. Gage, and B.A. Wilson: Plat. Surf. Finish., 1994, vol. 81, pp. 18-22.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    10.G.F. Hsu: Plat. Surf. Finish., 1984, vol. 71, pp. 52-55.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    11.T.V. Byk, T.V. Gaevskaya, and L.S. Tsybulskaya: Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, vol. 202(24), pp. 5817-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    12.O. Hammami, L. Dhouibi, P. Bercot, E.M. Rezrazi, and E. Triki: Int. J. Corros., 2011, vol. 2012, pp. 1-8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    13.B.M. Praveen, and T.V. Venkatesha: Int. J. Electrochem., 2011, vol. 2011, pp. 1-4.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    14.T.J. Tuaweri, P.P. Jombo, and A.N. Okpala: IJAMSE, 2014, vol. 3(2), pp. 1-12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    15.L. Exbrayat, C. Rebere, R.N. Eyame, P. Steyer, and J. Creus: Mater. Corros., 2017, vol. 68(10), pp. 1129-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    16.T. Xiang, M. Zhang, C. Li, C. Dong, L. Yang, and W. Chan: J. Alloy Compd., 2018, vol. 736, pp. 62-70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    17.N. Haghmoradi, C. Dehghanian, and H. Khanlarkhani: IJSurfSE, 2018, vol. 96(3), pp. 155-62.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    18.I.A. Ovid’ko: Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., 2013, vol. 34, pp. 1-11.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    L.A. Falkovsky: J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 2008, vol. 129(1), pp. 1-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.H. CastroNeto, F. Guinea, N.M.R. Peres, K.S. Novoselov, and A.K. Geim: Rev. Mod. Phys., 2009, vol. 81, pp. 109-62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y.J. Kim, Y. Kim, K. Novoselov, B.H. Hong (2015) D Mater. 2:1–17.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    22.E. Pop, V. Varshney, and A.K. Roy: MRS Bull., 2012, vol. 37, pp. 1273–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    23.V. Berry: Carbon, 2013, vol. 62, pp. 1-10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y Su, VG Kravets, SL Wong, J Waters, AK Geim, RR Nair (2014) Nature 5:1–5.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    25.J.S. Qi, J.Y. Huang, J. Feng, D.N. Shi, and J. Li: ACS Nano, 2011, vol. 5(5), pp. 3475-82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    26.C.M.P. Kumar, T.V. Venkatesha, and R. Shabadi: Mater. Res. Bull., 2013, vol. 48(4), pp. 1477-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    27.R. Berlia, M.K.P. Kumar, and C. Srivastava: RSC Adv., 2015, vol. 5, pp. 71413-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    28.M.K.P. Kumar, M.P. Singh, and C. Srivastava: RSC Adv., 2015, vol. 5, pp. 25603-08.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    29.M.Y. Rekha, M.K.P. Kumar, and C. Srivastava: RSC Adv., 2016, vol. 6, pp. 62083-90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    30.M.K.P. Kumar, M.Y. Rekha, J. Agrawal, T.M. Agarwal, and C. Srivastava: J. Alloy. Compd., 2019, vol. 783, pp. 820-27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    31.M.Y. Rekha, A. Kamboj, and C. Srivastava: Thin Solid Films, 2017, vol. 636, pp. 593-601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    32.M.Y. Rekha, A. Kamboj, and C. Srivastava: Thin Solid Films, 2018, vol. 653, pp. 82-92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    33.A. Gupta, and C. Srivastava: Thin Solid Films, 2018, vol. 661, pp. 98-107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    34.A. Gupta, and C. Srivastava: Thin Solid Films, 2019, vol. 669, pp. 85-95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    35.J. Chen, B. Yao, C. Li, and G. Shi: Carbon, 2013, vol. 64, pp. 225-29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    36.A. Tozar, and I.H. Karahan: Appl. Surf. Sci., 2014, vol. 318, pp. 15-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    37.S. Azizighannad, and S. Mitra: Scientific Reports, 2018, vol. 8, pp. 1-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    38.S.A. Ntim, O.S. Khow, F.A. Witzmann, and S. Mitra: J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2011, vol. 355, pp. 383-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    39.D.A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E.J. Zimney, R.D. Piner, G.H.B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S.T. Nguyen, and R.S. Ruoff: Nature, 2007, vol. 448, pp. 457-60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    40.Y. Dong, J. Shao, C. Chen, H. Li, R. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Lin, and G. Chen: Carbon, 2012, vol. 50, pp. 4738-43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    41.L. Dong, D. Shi, Z. Wu, Q. Li, and Z. Han: Dig. J. Nanometer. Biostruct., 2015, vol. 10, pp. 855-64.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    42.D. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R.D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D.A. Field, C.A. Ventrice Jr, and R.S. Ruoff: Carbon, 2009, vol. 47, pp. 145-52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. Kostiuk, M. Bodik, P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, Y. Halahovets, M. Hodas, M. Pelletta, M. Pelach, M. Hulman, Z. Spitalsky, M. Omastova, and E. Maikova: J. Raman Spectrosc., 2015, vol. 47, pp. 391-94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    44.S.M. Asl, A. Afshar, and Y. Yaghoubinezhad: Int. J. Corros., 2018, vol. 2018, pp. 1-13.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    45.B.D. Ossonon, and D. Belanger: RSC Adv., 2017, vol. 7, pp. 27224-34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    46.D. He, Z. Peng, W. Gong, Y. Luo, P. Zhao, and L. Kong: RSC Adv., 2015, vol. 5, pp. 11966-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    47.T.F. Emiru, and D.W. Ayele: Egypt. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 2017, vol. 4(1), pp. 74-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    48.D.R. Dreyer, S. Park, C.W. Bielawski, and R.S. Ruoff: Chem. Soc. Rev., 2010, vol. 39, pp. 228-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    MJ Li, CM Liu, YB Xie, HB Cao, H Zhao, Y Zhang: Carbon, 2014, vol. 66, pp. 302-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    50.L. Alexander, and H.P. Klug: J. Appl. Phys., 1950, vol. 21, pp. 137-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    51.B.M. Praveen, and T.V. Venkatesha: J. Alloys Compd., 2009, vol. 482, pp. 53-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Y. Raghupathy, A. Kamboj, M.Y. Rekha, N.P. NarasimhaRao, C. Srivastava: Thin Solid Films, 2017, vol. 636, pp. 107-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    53.M. Stern, and A.L. Geary: J. Electrochem. Soc., 1957, vol. 104(1), pp. 56-63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    54.Y. Liu, H. Li, and Z. Li: Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2013, vol. 8, pp. 7753-67.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    55.A. Kamboj, Y. Raghupathy, M.Y. Rekha, and C. Srivastava: JOM, 2017, vol. 69(7), pp. 1149-54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    56.S.H. Mosavat, M.H. Shariat, and M.E. Bahrololoom: Corros. Sci., 2012, vol. 59, pp. 81-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    57.T. Oriti: NASF Surface Technology White Papers, 2014, vol. 79(1), pp. 1-16.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    58.A. Conde, M.A. Arenas, and J.J. de Damborenea: Corros. Sci., 2011, vol. 53, pp. 1489-97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    59.M. Shourgeshty, M Aliofkhazraei, A. Karimzadeh, R. Poursalehi: Mater. Res. Express, 2017, vol. 4, pp. 1-13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    60.G. Huang, X. Li, and L. Xing: Anti-Corros. Method. M., 2016, vol. 63(6), pp. 461-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    61.J-B. Jorcin, M.E. Orazem, N. Pebere, B. Tribollet: Electrochim. Acta, 2006, vol. 51, pp. 1473-79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    62.H. Bai, and F. Wang: J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, vol. 23(4), pp. 541-46.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    63.M.K.P. Kumar, T.V. Venkatesha, M.K. Pavithra, and A.N. Shetty: Phys. Scr., 2011, vol. 84, pp. 1-10.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    64.F. Yang, H. Kang, E. Guo, R. Li, Z. Chen, and Y. Zeng: Corros. Sci., 2018, vol. 139, pp. 333-45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    65.C. Liu, Q. Bi, A. Leyland, and A. Matthews: Corros. Sci., 2003, vol. 45, pp. 1243–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    66.M. Shourgeshty, M Aliofkhazraei, A. Karimzadeh, and R. Poursalehi: Mater. Res. Express, 2017, vol. 4, pp. 1-13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations