Mechanical Characteristics of a Roll-Bonded Cu-Clad Steel Sheet Processed Through Incremental Forming

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Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is an emerging cold forming process with a high economic payoff. In this study, the influence of the ISF process on the tensile properties of Cu-clad Steel sheet is analyzed experimentally. Depending on the forming conditions, the post-ISF values of yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility are found to range from 161 to 430, 288 to 449 MPa, and 4.93 to 16.62 pct, respectively. These properties show a strong dependence on several correlated quantities such as the applied plastic strain, grain size, and mean residual stress. As the plastic strain increases from 0.08 to 0.8, the width of the grain decreases from 8.11 to 5.78 µm and the residual stress increases from − 15 to − 131 MPa. In comparison to the unformed sheet, ISF enhances the yield strength (4.6 to 117 pct) and tensile strength (0.6 to 73 pct). The nature of change in ductility (− 67 to 117 pct), however, depends on the process conditions, especially the state of the unformed sheet (i.e., rolled/annealed) and the value of applied strain. In general, the rolled (or prestrained) sheet upon ISF experiences an increase in ductility. The annealed sheet, however, sees a drop in ductility when the forming strains are low (e.g., < 0.4) and an increase in ductility when the strains are high (e.g., > 0.4). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses confirm that no new phase formed during ISF.

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Fig. 11


d :

Tool diameter

θ :

Deformation angle

ω :

Tool rotation

f :

Feed rate

p :

Step size

T :

Annealing temperature

σ t :

Post-ISF tensile strength

σ y :

Post-ISF yield strength

λ :

Ductility or percent elongation

η :

Grain width in the cross section


Incremental sheet forming

ɛ-ISF :

Strain applied by ISF


Electron dispersive spectroscopy


X-ray diffraction


Scanning electron microscope


electron backscatter diffraction


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The authors are thankful of GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences & Technology, Pakistan, for providing necessary technical support to materialize this research.


This research work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, People’s Republic of China (Grant No. NS2015055), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51105202); and the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs, People’s Republic of China, and the Ministry of Education, People’s Republic of China (111 Project—Grant No. 773 B16024).

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Manuscript submitted November 5, 2017.

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Wei, H., Hussain, G. Mechanical Characteristics of a Roll-Bonded Cu-Clad Steel Sheet Processed Through Incremental Forming. Metall and Mat Trans A 50, 4594–4607 (2019).

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