Advertisement

Abrasive Wear Resistance of Ferrous Microstructures with Similar Bulk Hardness Levels Evaluated by a Scratch-Tester Method

  • 123 Accesses

Abstract

A high-strain scratch tester was employed to investigate the abrasive behavior of four different ferrous microstructures with similar bulk hardness levels. The microstructures revealed unique groove characteristics and significant deformation in their sub-surface layers. Bainite and pearlite displayed superior abrasive wear performance in comparison with martensite and tempered martensite microstructures. The characteristics of microstructure constituents were responsible for the distinct groove characteristics and material removal mechanisms. The effect of normal load was influential in the transition of the material removal mechanism from ploughing to cutting. The sub-surface layer of microstructures revealed significant deformation (i.e., nanostructure formation), which was largely determined by the initial microstructure characteristics. The occurrence of work-hardening phenomenon in the sub-surface layer demonstrated a positive impact during abrasion.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 294

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  1. 1.

    B. Bhushan: Introduction to tribology, 2nd ed. Wiley, New York, 2013, pp. 328–340.

  2. 2.

    W.A. Glaeser, C.R. Brundle and C.A. Evans: Characterization of Tribological Materials, 2nd edn. Momentum Press, New York, 2010, pp. 80-83.

  3. 3.

    J.A. Hawk and R.D. Wilson: Tribology of Earthmoving, Mining, and Minerals Processing, CRC Press LLC, Florida, 2001, pp. 1331-1370.

  4. 4.

    I.M. Hutchings: Tribology: friction and wear of engineering materials, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, Great Britain, 1992, pp. 133-135.

  5. 5.

    K.-H. Gahr: Proc. Conf. Wear Mater., ASME. 1979, pp. 266 – 274.

  6. 6.

    M. Moore: Wear, 1974, vol. 28, pp. 59-68.

  7. 7.

    P. Mutton and J. Watson: Wear, 1978, vol. 48, pp. 385-398.

  8. 8.

    N. Serpik and M. Kantor: Metalloved. Obrab. Met.,1958, vol. 7, pp. 46-50.

  9. 9.

    K.H. ZumGahr (1987) Microstructure and Wear of Materials. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 392-417.

  10. 10.

    J. Larsen-Badse and K. Mathew: Wear, 1969, vol. 14, pp. 199-205.

  11. 11.

    R. Richardson: Wear, 1967, vol. 10, pp. 291-309.

  12. 12.

    M.M. Khruschov: Proc. Conf. Lubrication and Wear, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1957, pp. 655–59.

  13. 13.

    M. M. Khruschov: Wear, 1974, vol. 28, pp. 69-88.

  14. 14.

    M. M. Khruschov and M. A. Babichev: Fric. Wear Mach., 12, 1958, pp. 5-23.

  15. 15.

    E. Rabinowicz, L. A. Dunn and P. G. Russel: Wear, 1961, vol. 4, pp. 345-355.

  16. 16.

    A. Misra and I. Finnie: Wear, 1981, vol. 68, pp. 33-39.

  17. 17.

    J. Larsen-Badse: Trans. Metall. Soc., 1996, vol. 236, pp 1461-1466.

  18. 18.

    J. Larsen-Badse: Wear, 1968, vol. 12, pp. 357-368.

  19. 19.

    K. Wellinger, H. Uetz and M. Gürleyik: Wear, 1968, vol. 11, pp. 173-199.

  20. 20.

    H. Çimenoǧlu: Wear, 1997, vol. 210, pp. 204-210.

  21. 21.

    N. Dube and I. Hutchings: Wear, 1999, vol. 233, pp. 246-56.

  22. 22.

    J. Larsen-Basse: Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia, 1990, vol. 24, pp. 821-826.

  23. 23.

    S. Mezlini, M. Zidi, H. Arfa, M.B. Tkaya and P. Kapsa: Comptes Rendus Mecanique, 2005, vol. 333, no. 11, pp. 830-837.

  24. 24.

    O. Modi, D. Mondal, B. Prasad, M. Singh and H. Khaira: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2003, vol. 343, pp. 235-242.

  25. 25.

    B. Prasad and S. Prasad: Wear, 1991, vol. 151, pp. 1-12.

  26. 26.

    S.D. Bakshi, P. Shipway and H. Bhadeshia: Wear, 2013, vol. 308, pp. 46-53.

  27. 27.

    B. Narayanaswamy, P. Hodgson and H. Beladi: Wear, 2016, vol. 354-355, pp. 41-52.

  28. 28.

    D. Rigney, L. Chen, M.G. Naylor and A. Rosenfield: Wear, 1984, vol. 100, pp. 195-219.

  29. 29.

    A. Mercer and I. Hutchings: Wear, 1989, vol. 132, pp. 77-97.

  30. 30.

    A. Misra and I. Finnie: Wear, 1981, vol. 65, pp. 359-373.

  31. 31.

    M. Moore: Wear Mater., 1983, pp. 1–11.

  32. 32.

    E. Rabinowicz and A. Mutis: Wear, 1965, vol. 8, pp. 381-390.

  33. 33.

    B. Narayanaswamy, P. Hodgson and H. Beladi: Wear, 2016, vol. 354, pp. 41-52.

  34. 34.

    X. Xu, S. van der Zwaag and W. Xu: Wear, 2017, vol. 385, pp. 106-113.

  35. 35.

    J.I. Pereiraa, G. Tressiaa, P.C. Machadoa, L.A. Francoa and A. Sinatora: Tribol. Int., 2018, vol. 128, pp. 337-348.

  36. 36.

    R. Ghasemi, L. Elmquist, E. Ghassemali, K. Salomonsson and A.E.W. Jarfors: Tribol. Int., 2018, vol. 120, pp. 465-475.

  37. 37.

    X. Xu, S. van der Zwaag and W. Xu: Wear, 2016, vol. 358, pp. 80-88.

  38. 38.

    T.A. Adler and R.P. Walters: Wear, 1993, vol. 162–164, pp. 713–720.

  39. 39.

    K.-H. ZumGahr and D.V. Doane: Metall. Trans. A, 1980, vol. 11, pp. 613-620.

  40. 40.

    M. Woldman, E. Van Der Heide, T. Tinga and M.A. Masen: Wear, 2013, vol. 301, pp. 76-81.

  41. 41.

    X. Xu, S. van der Zwaag and W. Xu: Wear, 2015, vol. 322, pp. 51-60.

  42. 42.

    ASTM E407-07(2015)e1, Standard Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015. https://www.astm.org/Standards/E407. Accessed 9 June 2019.

  43. 43.

    A. Ghaderi, G. Saha,, T. Guo, D. Fabijanic and M. R. Barnett: Wear, 2018, vol. 404, pp. 53-165.

  44. 44.

    K.J. Hume: A history of engineering metrology, Mechanical Engineering Publications, London, 1980, pp. 152-156.

  45. 45.

    J.A. Williams: Tribol. Int., 1996, vol. 29, pp. 675-694.

  46. 46.

    C. A. Brookes, P. Green, P. H. Harrison and B. Moxley: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 1972, vol. 5, pp. 1284-1293.

  47. 47.

    T.A. Adler, and R. P. Walters: Wear, 1993, vol. 162-164, pp. 713-20.

  48. 48.

    K. Hokkirigawa and K. Kato: Wear, 1988, vol. 21, pp. 51-57.

  49. 49.

    F. Pöhl, C. Hardes and W. Theisen: Wear, 2019, vol. 422, pp. 212-222.

  50. 50.

    K. Hokkirigawa and K. Kato: Wear, 1988, vol. 123, pp. 241-251.

  51. 51.

    X. Xu, S. van der Zwaag and W. Xu: Wear, 2016, vol. 348, pp. 148-157.

  52. 52.

    X. Xu, S. van der Zwaag and W. Xu: Wear, 2016, vol. 348, pp. 80-88.

  53. 53.

    H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Bainite in steels, 2nd ed., Inst. of Materials, Great Britain, 1992, pp. 19-26.

  54. 54.

    L. Chang: Wear, 2005, vol. 258, pp. 730-743.

  55. 55.

    C. Garcia-Mateo, F. Caballero, J. Chao, C. Capdevila and C.G. De Andres: J. Mater. Sci., 2009, vol. 44, pp. 4617-4624.

  56. 56.

    A. Leiro, A. Kankanala, E. Vuorinen and B. Prakash: Wear, 2011, vol. 273, pp. 2-8.

  57. 57.

    B. Narayanaswamy, P. Hodgson, I. Timokhina and H. Beladi: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2016, vol. 47, pp. 4883-4895.

  58. 58.

    E.Vuorinen, N.Ojala, V.Heino, C.Rau and C.Gahm: Tribol. Int., 2016, vol. 98, pp. 108-115.

  59. 59.

    Y.J. Li, P. Choi, C. Borchers, S. Westerkamp, S. Goto, D. Raabe and R. Kirchheim: Acta Mater., 2011, vol. 59, pp. 3965-3977.

  60. 60.

    Y.J. Li, P. Choi, S. Goto, C. Borchers, D. Raabe and R. Kirchheim: Acta Mater., 2012. vol. 60, pp. 4005-4016.

  61. 61.

    Kati Valtonena, Niko Ojalaa, Oskari Haikoc and Veli-Tapani Kuokkalaa: Wear, 2019, vol. 426, pp. 3-13.

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Australian Research Council (FL0992361) for their financial support. The authors acknowledge the support of ARC mine Alloy training centre. The microstructural characterization was carried out with the help of the Deakin Advanced Characterization Facility.

Author information

Correspondence to Balaji Narayanaswamy.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Manuscript submitted December 10, 2018.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Narayanaswamy, B., Ghaderi, A., Hodgson, P. et al. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Ferrous Microstructures with Similar Bulk Hardness Levels Evaluated by a Scratch-Tester Method. Metall and Mat Trans A 50, 4839–4850 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-019-05354-2

Download citation