Microstructure Development of 308L Stainless Steel During Additive Manufacturing

  • D. W. BrownEmail author
  • A. Losko
  • J. S. Carpenter
  • J. C. Cooley
  • B. Clausen
  • J. Dahal
  • P. Kenesei
  • J.-S. Park


In situ high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements were completed during deposition of 308L stainless steel wire onto a 304L stainless steel substrate. Attempts were made to extract microstructural features such as phase fraction and internal stress, as well as temperature evolution immediately following the deposition. The limited data that could be collected during deposition and rapid solidification are critically examined. High-energy X-rays coupled with relatively slow detectors were utilized to enable determination of orientation-dependent lattice parameters accurately enough to comment on phase strain evolution between austenite and ferrite. Information about the hydrostatic and deviatoric stress states of the constituent phases was determined on time scales that are relevant to their development. However, the time resolution of the technique was insufficient to monitor phase evolution during the solid–solid phase transformation and, more so, during solidification. Moreover, the accurate and absolute determination of inherently statistical parameters, such as phase fraction, depends critically on the ability to sample a statistically significant numbers of grains in the microstructure.



Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security LLC under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The authors wish to acknowledge and thank Mr. John Bernal of LANL and the APS 1-ID Beamline Staff, Ali Mashayekhi, and Roger Ranay, for their technical support at the experiments.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Brown
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Losko
    • 1
  • J. S. Carpenter
    • 1
  • J. C. Cooley
    • 1
  • B. Clausen
    • 1
  • J. Dahal
    • 2
  • P. Kenesei
    • 3
  • J.-S. Park
    • 3
  1. 1.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringColorado School of MinesGoldenUSA
  3. 3.Argonne National LaboratoryLemontUSA

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