Erosive Wear Study of the AISI 201LN Stainless Steel: A Comparison with the AISI 304 and AISI 410 Stainless Steels

  • Ana Paula Marques de OliveiraEmail author
  • Manuel Houmard
  • Wilian Da Silva Labiapari
  • Cristina Godoy


Synergistic corrosion and oxidation can accelerate the wear phenomenon in aggressive environments such as machinery operating in mining industries. The main purpose of this article is to study the erosion wear behavior of the AISI 201LN austenitic stainless steel toward an erosive wear process simulating the flow of particles in chutes. In addition to its good resistance to corrosion, the high Md temperature and low stacking fault energy (SFE) presented by the AISI 201LN steel favor its deformation-induced ε-martensitic transformation and, consequently, its work-hardening capacity. These characteristics induce a high potential in applications where mechanical wear occurs simultaneously with corrosion. For comparison purposes, AISI 304 and AISI 410 stainless steels, commonly used in mining and agroindustry equipment, were also studied in this work. Among the austenitic alloys, since its composition is weak in nickel, the AISI 201LN steel has a low production cost. The erosion tests were performed with impact angles of 20 and 90 deg, and the eroded samples were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microhardness measurements. All the materials studied presented erosive wear by plastic deformation, and the AISI 201LN steel exhibited the highest erosive wear resistance. Its high ductility, high hardening rate, and high tendency to form martensite by deformation were fundamentals for such response. As a result, the AISI 201LN stainless steel seems promising as a cheaper material for applications in equipment that undergoes simultaneous erosive and corrosive wear.



The authors thank CAPES, FAPEMIG, and APERAM South America for financial support.


  1. 1.
    Hutchings and S. Philip: Tribology—Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Cambridge, UK, 2017.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Bellman and A. Levy: Wear, 1981, vol. 70, pp. 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Bingley and D. O’Flynn: Wear, 2005, vol. 258, pp. 511–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Allen and A. Ball: Tribol. Int., 1996, vol. 29, pp. 105–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aperam South America: Mining Plate (2016),, (in Portuguese). Accessed July 24, 2018.
  6. 6.
    J.G.A. Bitter: Wear, 1963, vol. 6, pp. 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.G.A. Bitter: Wear, 1963, vol. 6, pp. 169–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Yadav, S. Tiwari, A. Rajput, R. Jatola, and M.L. Jain: “A Review: Erosion Wear Models,” Int. Conf. Emerging Trends in Mechanical Engineering “ICETME,” May 27–28, 2016.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.W.K. Honeycombe: Steels: Microstructure and Properties, Edward Arnold, Lincoln University, PA, 1982.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Tavares and J. Pardal: Mater. Charact., 2009, vol. 60, pp. 907–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Chuaiphan and L. Srijaroenpramong: J. Mater. Processing Technol., 2014, vol. 214, pp. 402–08.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Charles, J.D. Mithieux, J. Krautschick, N. Suutala, J.A. Simón, B. Van Hecke, and T. Pauly: Rev. Métall. Int. J. Metall., 2009, vol. 106, pp. 90–98.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ASTM—American Standard for Testing Materials: “Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products,” A370–12, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    W.D. Callister and D.G. Rethwisch: Materials Science and Engineering, 8th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2011.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Vite-Torres, J.R. Laguna-Camacho, R.E. Baldenebro-Castillo, E.A. Gallardo Hernández, E.E. Vera-Cárdena, and J. Vite-Torres: Wear, 2013, vol. 301, pp. 383–89.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Liebhard and A. Levy: Wear, 1991, vol. 151, pp. 381–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Clark and R.B. Hartwich: Wear, 2001, vol. 248, pp. 147–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.V. Levy and P. Chik: Wear, 1983, vol. 89, pp. 151–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B.K. Gandhi, S.N. Singh, and V. Seshadri: Tribol. Int., 1999, vol. 32, pp. 275–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T.E. Schramm and R.P. Reed: Metall. Trans. A, 1975, vol. 6A, pp. 1345–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Nohara, O. Yutaka, and O. Nobuo: Tetsu-to-Hagané, 1977, vol. 63, pp. 772–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Gauss, I.R. Souza Filho, M.J.R. Sandim, P.A. Suzuki, A.J. Ramirez, and H.R.Z. Sandim: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, vol. 651, pp. 507–16.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Viafara and A. Sinatora: J. Mater. Product Technol., 2010, vol. 38, pp. 93–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F.T. Lischka and C.A.S. de Oliveira: J. Achiev. Mater. Manufact. Eng., 2015, vol. 71, pp. 34–38.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kovalev, A. Jahn, A. Weib, and P.R. Scheller: Steel Res. Int., 2011, vol. 82, pp. 45–50.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.V. Levy: Wear, 1986, vol. 108, pp. 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    I. Finnie: Wear, 1972, vol. 19, pp. 81–90.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C.H. Chen, C.J. Altstetter, and J.M. Rigsbee: Metall. Trans. A, 1984, vol. 15A, pp. 719–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Sundararajan: Metals, 1983, vol. 36, pp. 474–95.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    G.P. Tilly: Wear, 1973, vol. 23, pp. 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K.H. Zum Gahr: Tribol. Ser., 1987, vol. 10, p. 560.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Hennessy, G. Steckel, and C. Altstetter: Metall. Trans. A, 1976, vol. 7A, pp. 415–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Pinto: Thesis, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, 2005, p. 53.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    C.B. Post and W.S Eberly: Trans. ASM, 1947, vol. 39, pp. 868–90.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. Lopez, N.A. Falleiros, and A.P. Tschiptschin: Tribol. Int., 2011, vol. 44, pp. 610–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    R.J.K. Wood, J.C. Walker, T.J. Harvey, S. Wang, and S.S. Rajahram: Wear, 2013, vol. 306, pp. 254–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Paula Marques de Oliveira
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manuel Houmard
    • 2
  • Wilian Da Silva Labiapari
    • 3
  • Cristina Godoy
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringFederal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG)Belo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Materials Engineering and Civil ConstructionFederal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Presidente Antônio CarlosBelo HorizonteBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Metallurgical Engineering and MaterialsFederal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG)Belo HorizonteBrazil
  4. 4.R&D of Aperam South AmericaTimóteoBrazil

Personalised recommendations