Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 936–946 | Cite as

Modeling of Carbide Spheroidization Mechanism of 52100 Bearing Steel Under Warm Forming Conditions

  • Tao HeEmail author
  • Yuanming Huo
  • Xiaojun Shi
  • Shoushuang Chen


Direct deformation spheroidization of bearing steel can produce a fine and homogeneous microstructure. Warm-compression experiments were performed to investigate the carbide spheroidization behavior of 52100 bearing steel at temperatures of 650 °C to 750 °C and strain rates of 0.1 to 10.0 s−1. A set of mechanism-based unified constitutive equations was developed using the internal state variable method to describe the carbide spheroidization and metal flow behaviors of 52100 steel under warm deformation. The carbide spheroidization fraction, dislocation density, and phase transformation were modeled and correlated with unified constitutive equations. Material parameters in the constitutive equations were determined using genetic algorithm optimization techniques. The developed constitutive equations were validated by comparing the predicted and experimental results. Good consistency between these results indicated that the carbide spheroidization and metal flow behavior could be predicted using these constitutive equations.



This project is funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51805314), Shanghai Committee of Science and Technology (Grant No. 16030501200), and Shanghai University of Engineering and Science (Grant Nos. E3-0903-17-01006 & E3-0501-18-01002). The Robot Functional Materials Preparation Laboratory in Shanghai University of Engineering Science is also gratefully acknowledged. We thank Kathryn Sole, Ph.D., from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (, for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tao He
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuanming Huo
    • 1
  • Xiaojun Shi
    • 2
  • Shoushuang Chen
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Automotive EngineeringShanghai University of Engineering ScienceShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Fangta Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Songjiang DistrictShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Institute of Quantitative & Technical EconomicsChinese Academy of Social SciencesBeijingChina

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