Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 655–663 | Cite as

3D Material Flow in Friction Stir Welds

  • R. W. FondaEmail author
  • D. J. Rowenhorst
  • K. E. Knipling


This study reveals the material flow that occurs as a function of position across a friction stir weld through an analysis of the deviations between the observed orientations of the shear deformation texture as compared to a model of idealized, geometrically predicted texture orientations at each location. Friction stir welding is a shear-dominated process, and the observed shear textures can indicate the local orientation of material flow during the welding process. Deviations of the observed texture from the geometrically predicted texture orientations reveal previously unreported variations in the actual material flow that occurred during welding as a function of position across the weld. The three-dimensional material flow revealed by these texture orientations shows important variations, particularly on the advancing side of the weld, that can provide critical experimental validation for friction stir welding models.

Graphical Abstract

110 inverse pole figure maps from seven scanned regions across a friction stir weld and three associated pole figures demonstrating the accuracy of the geometric methodology and showing the deviations between the calculated shear reference frame (Shear Direction, Shear Plane Normal, and Rotation Axis) and the observed material flow orientations



The authors would like to acknowledge funding for this research from the Structural Metallics program of ONR and from the Naval Research Laboratory under the auspices of the Office of Naval Research. We would also like to thank Dr. A.P. Reynolds for providing us with the weld material.


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Fonda
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. J. Rowenhorst
    • 1
  • K. E. Knipling
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Naval Research LaboratoryWashingtonUSA

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