Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 179–190 | Cite as

Microstructural Evolution and Deformation Behavior of Ni-Si- and Co-Si-Containing Metastable High Entropy Alloys

  • S. Sinha
  • S. S. Nene
  • M. Frank
  • K. Liu
  • R. S. Mishra
  • B. A. McWilliams
  • K. C. Cho


Two high entropy alloy (HEA) compositions were compared to explore the individual effects of Co and Ni on phase stability and resultant deformation response in Fe-Mn-Cr-Si-containing HEAs. It was observed that Co-Si-containing HEA depicted responsive phase evolution upon friction stir processing owing to decreased γ (f.c.c.) matrix stability as against Ni-Si-containing HEA. As a result, the Co-Si HEA showed the presence of dual-phase microstructure with the dominance of ε (h.c.p.) phase (52 pct), whereas the Ni-Si HEA showed single-phase γ microstructure under similar processing condition. Also, the dominant deformation mechanisms were different in the two alloys. Co-Si HEA showed uniform strain partitioning between the f.c.c. and h.c.p. phases. Conversely, single-phase f.c.c. microstructure in Ni-Si HEA accommodated strain by twinning-induced plasticity.



The current study was performed under a Cooperative Agreement between the Army Research Laboratory and the University of North Texas (W911NF-13-2-0018). The authors thank the Center for Advanced Research and Technology for allowing access to microscopy facilities at the University of North Texas. The authors also acknowledge the help of J. Reeder, S. Zellner, and L. Reza Nieto in EBSD and tensile specimen preparation.


  1. 1.
    [1] Y. Deng, C.C. Tasan, K.G. Pradeep, H. Springer, A. Kostka, and D. Raabe: Acta Mater., 2015, vol. 94, pp. 124-133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    [2] Z. Li, K.G. Pradeep, Y. Deng, D. Raabe, and C.C. Tasan: Nature, 2016, vol. 534, pp. 227-230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    [3] Z. Li and D. Raabe: JOM, 2017, vol. 69, pp. 2099-2106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    [4] Z. Li, C.C. Tasan, H. Springer, B. Gault, and D. Raabe: Sci. Reports, 2017, vol. 7, pp. 40704-1–40704-7.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    [5] Z. Li, C.C. Tasan, K.G. Pradeep, and D. Raabe: Acta Mater., 2017, vol. 131, pp. 323-335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    [6] M. Wang, Z. Li, and D. Raabe: Acta Mater., 2018, vol. 147, pp. 236-246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J-W. Yeh: Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater., 2006, vol. 31, pp. 633-648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.C. Gao, J-W. Yeh, P.K. Liaw, and Y. Zhang: High-Entropy Alloys Fundamentals and Applications, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016, pp. 53-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    [9] D.B. Miracle and O.N. Senkov: Acta Mater., 2017, vol. 122, pp. 448-511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    [10] S. Palanivel, A. Arora, K.J. Doherty, and R.S. Mishra: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, vol. 678, pp. 308-314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    [11] S.S. Nene, K. Liu, M. Frank, R.S. Mishra, R.E. Brennan, K.C. Cho, Z. Li, and D. Raabe: Sci. Reports, 2017, vol. 7, pp. 16167-1–16167-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.S. Nene, M. Frank, K. Liu, R.S. Mishra, B.A. McWilliams, and K.C. Cho: Sci. Reports, 2018, vol. 8, pp. 9920-1–9920-8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    [13] S.S. Nene, M. Frank, K. Liu, S. Sinha, R.S. Mishra, B. McWilliams, and K.C. Cho: Scripta Mater., 2018, vol. 154, pp. 163-167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    [14] D.B. Miracle, J.D. Miller, O.N. Senkov, C. Woodward, M.D. Uchic, and J. Tiley: Entropy 2014, vol. 16, pp. 494-525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Chikumba and V.V. Rao: 7th ICLTET Proc. High Entropy Alloys: Dev. Appl., 2015, pp. 13–17., accessed 19 Sep 2018.
  16. 16.
    [16] D.P. Field, C.C. Merriman, and I.N. Mastorakos: Sol. St. Phen., 2010, vol. 160, pp. 17-22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    [17] M.A. Meyers, O. Vohringer, and V.A. Lubarda: Acta Mater., 2001, vol. 49, pp. 4025-4039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    [18] Y.T. Zhu, X.Z. Liao, X.L. Wu, and J. Narayan: J. Mater. Sci., 2013, vol. 48, pp. 4467-4475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    [19] F. Trichter, A. Rabinkin, M. Ron, and A. Sharfstein: Scripta Metall., 1978, vol. 12, pp. 431-434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    [20] D.T. Pierce, J.A. Jiménez, J. Bentley, D. Raabe, C. Oskay, and J.E. Wittig: Acta Mater., 2014, vol. 68, pp. 238-253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    [21] S. Martin, C. Ullrich, and D. Rafaja: Mater. Today Proc., 2015, vol. 2, pp. 643-646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    [22] S. Martin, S. Wolf, U. Martin, L. Kruger, and D. Rafaja: Met. Mater. Trans. A, 2016, vol. 47A, pp. 49-58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    [23] E.I. Galindo-Nava and P.E.J. Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo: Acta Mater., 2017, vol. 128, pp. 120-134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    [24] R. Xiong, H. Peng, H. Si, W. Zhang, and Y. Wen: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2014, vol. 598, pp. 376-386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    [25] A.J. Zaddach, C. Niu, C.C. Koch, and D.L. Irving: JOM, 2013, vol. 65, pp. 1780-1789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    [26] E. Otto, A. Dlouhy, Ch. Somsen, H. Bei, G. Eggeler, and E.P. George: Acta Mater., 2013, vol. 61, pp. 5743-5755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    [27] S. Huang, W. Lei, S. Lu, F. Tian, J. Shen, E. Holmstrom, and L. Vitos: Scripta Mater., 2015, vol. 108, pp. 44-47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    [28] A.J. Zaddach, R.O. Scattergood, and C.C. Koch: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, vol. 636, pp. 373-378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    [29] N.L. Okamoto, S. Fujimoto, Y. Kambara, M. Kawamura, Z. M.T. Chen, H. Matsunoshita, K. Tanaka, H. Inui, and E.P. George: Sci. Reports, 2016, vol. 6, pp. 35863-1–35863-10.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    [30] S.F. Liu, Y. Wu, H.T. Wang, J.Y. He, J.B. Liu, C.X. Chen, X.J. Liu, H. Wang, and Z.P. Lu: Intermetallics, 2018, vol. 93, pp. 269-273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    [31] G.B. Olson and M. Cohen: Met. Trans. A, 1976, vol. 7A, pp. 1897-1904.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Sinha
    • 1
  • S. S. Nene
    • 1
  • M. Frank
    • 1
  • K. Liu
    • 1
  • R. S. Mishra
    • 1
  • B. A. McWilliams
    • 2
  • K. C. Cho
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  2. 2.Weapons and Materials Research DirectorateU.S. Army Research LaboratoryAberdeenUSA

Personalised recommendations