Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 49, Issue 10, pp 4824–4837 | Cite as

Effects of Carbon Variation on Microstructure Evolution in Weld Heat-Affected Zone of Nb-Ti Microalloyed Steels

  • Xiaoping MaEmail author
  • Xueda Li
  • Brian Langelier
  • Baptiste Gault
  • Sundaresa Subramanian
  • Laurie Collins


We investigated the effects of C concentration variation from 0.028 to 0.058 wt pct on microstructure of the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of low heat input girth welded Ti-Nb microalloyed steels by using electron microscope and atom probe tomography. It is found that the CGHAZ microstructure exhibits a systematic response to C variation. Increased C raises the temperature for precipitation of NbC. This leads to coarser (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C, N) but finer delayed strain-induced NbC in the high-C steel than in the low-C steel. Fine strain-induced NbC are ineffective in preventing austenite grain coarsening in CGHAZ due to their fast dissolution upon heating. For a given inter-particle spacing originally determined by (Ti, Nb)N particles, increased epitaxial growth of Nb(C, N) on pre-existing (Ti, Nb)N in the high-C steel results in a smaller austenite grain size of 34 µm in the CGHAZ of the high-C steel than that of 52 µm in the low-C steel. Increased C promotes a microstructure consisting of bainitic lath structure with C Cottrell atmospheres at dislocation debris and martensitic layers of 30 to 100 nm in thickness at inter-lath boundaries in the CGHAZ. Increased C promotes configuration of crystallographic variants belonging to different Bain groups in the neighbors, preferentially twin-related variant pairs within a bainite packet.



The authors wish to express grateful thanks to Dr. Gianluigi Botton, Dr. Glynis de Silveira, Mr. Chris Butcher, Dr. Andreas Korinek for help with EBSD and TEM characterization of the samples, Mrs. Julia Huang and Mr. Travis Casagrande for help with FIB preparation of the atom probe samples in Canadian Center of Electron Microscope (CCEM) at McMaster University. The funding from CBMM, Brazil, and Evraz, Inc., NA, Canada is gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoping Ma
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xueda Li
    • 3
  • Brian Langelier
    • 1
  • Baptiste Gault
    • 4
  • Sundaresa Subramanian
    • 1
  • Laurie Collins
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Algoma Steel Inc.Sault Ste. MarieCanada
  3. 3.College of Mechanical and Electronic EngineeringChina University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina
  4. 4.Department of Microstructure Physics and Alloy DesignMax-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbHDüsseldorfGermany
  5. 5.EVRAZ North AmericaReginaCanada

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