Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 49, Issue 10, pp 5035–5041 | Cite as

Feasibility Study of Making Metallic Hybrid Materials Using Additive Manufacturing

  • Ercan Cakmak
  • Niyanth Sridharan
  • Singanallur V. Venkatakrishnan
  • Hassina Z. Bilheux
  • Louis J. Santodonato
  • Amit Shyam
  • Sudarsanam S. Babu


A metallic hybrid structure, consisting of an Inconel-718 matrix and a Co-Cr internal structure, was successfully manufactured using laser direct energy deposition process. Characterizations were performed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron-computed tomography (nCT), and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) to verify the interfaces between Co-rich and Ni-rich phases. nCT revealed the internal structures to be continuous without cracking or significant intermixing due to inter-diffusion of Co and Ni (i.e., dissolved boundaries between the two structures). Minor porosity was detected. EBSD confirmed a good bond at the granular level. No precipitate phases were detected with XRD. EDS revealed dilution/intermixing between the Co and Ni interfaces presumably due to melt-pool overlay between the matrix and the internal structures.



This research was sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy. Research at MDF was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. The use of the CG-1D Cold Neutron Imaging Facility at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is supported by the Scientific User Facilities Division, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. Drs. Thomas R. Watkins, Peeyush Nandwana, and Yukinori Yamamoto are thanked for reviewing the article and providing valuable feedback.

Supplementary material

11661_2018_4741_MOESM1_ESM.docx (211 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 210 kb)


  1. 1.
    M.F. Ashby, Philos. Mag., 2005, vol.85, pp.3235-3257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B.E. Carroll, R.A. Otis, J.P. Borgonia, J.O. Suh, R.P. Dillon, A.A. Shapiro, D.C. Hofmann, Z.K. Liu, A.M. Beese, Acta Mater., 2016, vol.108, pp.46-54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Gu, Y.C. Hagedorn, W. Meiners, K. Wissenbach, R. Poprawe, Surf. Coat. Tech., 2011, vol.205, pp.3285-3292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Xiong, J.E. Smugeresky, L. Ajdelsztajn, J.M. Schoenung, Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 2008, vol.493, pp.261-266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Banerjee, P.C. Collins, H.L. Fraser, Adv. Eng. Mater., 2002, vol.4, pp.847-851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Cakmak, M.M. Kirka, T.R. Watkins, R.C. Cooper, K. An, H. Choo, W. Wu, R.R. Dehoff, S.S. Babu, Acta Mater., 2016, vol.108, pp.161-175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Cakmak, T.R. Watkins, J.R. Bunn, R.C. Cooper, P.A. Cornwell, Y. Wang, L.M. Sochalski-Kolbus, R.R. Dehoff, S.S. Babu, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2016, vol.47, pp.971-980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Oruganti, A. Ghosh, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2003, vol.34, pp.2643-2653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Gåård, P. Krakhmalev, J. Bergström, J. Alloy. Compd., 2006, vol.421, pp.166-171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    X. Wang, T. Laoui, J. Bonse, J.P. Kruth, B. Lauwers, L. Froyen, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., 2002, vol.19, pp.351-357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K.I. Schwendner, R. Banerjee, P.C. Collins, C.A. Brice, H.L. Fraser, Scripta Mater., 2001, vol.45, pp.1123-1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Banerjee, A. Genc, D. Hill, P. Collins, H. Fraser, Scripta Mater., 2005, vol.53, pp.1433-1437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Simchi, D. Godlinski, Scripta Mater., 2008, vol.59, pp.199-202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Zheng, T. Topping, J.E. Smugeresky, Y. Zhou, A. Biswas, D. Baker, E.J. Lavernia, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2010, vol.41, pp.568-573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Martin, D. Fabrègue, F. Mercier, J.A. Chafino-Aixa, R. Dendievel, J.J. Blandin, Scripta Mater., 2016, vol.122, pp.5-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.E. Pawlowski, Z.C. Cordero, M.R. French, T.R. Muth, J.K. Carver, R.B. Dinwiddie, A.M. Elliott, A. Shyam, D.A. Splitter, Mater. Design, 2017, vol.127, pp.346-351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    N. Sridharan, E. Cakmak, B. Jordan, D. Leonard, W. Peter, R. Dehoff, D. Gandy, S. Babu, Weld. J., 2017, vol.96, pp.295S-306S.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K.H. Shin, H. Natu, D. Dutta, J. Mazumder, Mater. Design, 2003, vol.24, pp.339-353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Collins, R. Banerjee, S. Banerjee, H. Fraser, Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 2003, vol. 352, pp.118-128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Santodonato, H. Bilheux, B. Bailey, J. Bilheux, P. Nguyen, A. Tremsin, D. Selby, L. Walker, Physcs. Proc., 2015, vol.69, pp.104-108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Crow, L. Robertson, H. Bilheux, M. Fleenor, E. Iverson, X. Tong, D. Stoica, W. Lee, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, 2011, vol.634, pp.S71-S74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Myagotin, A. Voropaev, L. Helfen, D. Hanschke, T. Baumbach, IEEE T. Image Process., 2013, vol.22, pp.5348-5361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Xu, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, H. Suhonen, Opt. Express, 2012, vol.20, pp.794-806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Z. Yu, J.B. Thibault, C.A. Bouman, K.D. Sauer, J. Hsieh, IEEE T. Image Process., 2011, vol.20, pp.161-175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.V. Venkatakrishnan, L.F. Drummy, M.A. Jackson, M. De Graef, J. Simmons, C.A. Bouman, IEEE T. Image Process., 2013, vol.22, pp.4532-4544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ercan Cakmak
    • 1
  • Niyanth Sridharan
    • 1
  • Singanallur V. Venkatakrishnan
    • 2
  • Hassina Z. Bilheux
    • 3
  • Louis J. Santodonato
    • 3
  • Amit Shyam
    • 1
  • Sudarsanam S. Babu
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Materials Science and Technology DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Electrical and Electronics Systems Research DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  3. 3.Chemical and Engineering Materials DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  4. 4.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  5. 5.Energy & Transportation Science DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  6. 6.Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical EngineeringThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations