Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 49, Issue 6, pp 2281–2292 | Cite as

Defining the Post-Machined Sub-surface in Austenitic Stainless Steels

  • N. Srinivasan
  • B. Sunil Kumar
  • V. Kain
  • N. Birbilis
  • S. S. Joshi
  • P. V. Sivaprasad
  • G. Chai
  • A. Durgaprasad
  • S. Bhattacharya
  • I. SamajdarEmail author


Austenitic stainless steels grades, with differences in chemistry, stacking fault energy, and thermal conductivity, were subjected to vertical milling. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization was able to differentiate (with machining speed/strain rate) between different post-machined sub-surfaces in SS 316L and Alloy A (a Cu containing austenitic stainless steel: Sanicroe 28™), but not in SS 304L. However, such differences (in the post-machined sub-surfaces) were revealed in surface roughness, sub-surface residual stresses and misorientations, and in the relative presence of sub-surface Cr2O3 films. It was shown, quantitatively, that higher machining speed reduced surface roughness and also reduced the effective depths of the affected sub-surface layers. A qualitative explanation on the sub-surface microstructural developments was provided based on the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The results herein represent a mechanistic understanding to rationalize the corrosion performance of widely adopted engineering alloys.



Feed rate (mm/min)


Spindle speed (rpm)


Depth of cut (mm)




Strain rate (s−1)


Clearance /rake angle (deg)


Normal clearance /rake angle (deg)


Diameter of the tool (mm)


Chip thickness (or) cutting ratio (deg)


Helix angle (deg)


Shear flow angle (deg)


Chip flow angle (deg)


Normal rake angle (deg)


Shear velocity component along the shear plane (mm/min)


Rotation of spindle speed (rpm)


Shear plane angle (deg)


Feed per tooth (mm)


Cutting speed (mm/min)


Shear band spacing (μm)



The authors would like to acknowledge Sandvik and DST for partial funding, and BRNS (Board of Research of Nuclear Sciences, India) for support. Support from the National Facility of Texture and SAIF (Sophisticated Analytical Instrumentation Facility) and CoEST (center of excellence in steel technology) of IIT Bombay are also acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Srinivasan
    • 1
  • B. Sunil Kumar
    • 2
  • V. Kain
    • 2
  • N. Birbilis
    • 3
  • S. S. Joshi
    • 4
  • P. V. Sivaprasad
    • 5
  • G. Chai
    • 6
  • A. Durgaprasad
    • 7
  • S. Bhattacharya
    • 8
  • I. Samajdar
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.IITB-Monash Research AcademyIIT BombayMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Materials Processing, & Corrosion Engineering DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIIT BombayMumbaiIndia
  5. 5.Sandvik Group R&D, Sandvik Asia Pvt. LtdPuneIndia
  6. 6.Sandvik Materials TechnologySandvikenSweden
  7. 7.Department of Metallurgical Engineering, & Materials ScienceIIT BombayMumbaiIndia
  8. 8.Technical Physics, Division Bhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

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