Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition
- 228 Downloads
Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.
The authors acknowledge the support of this investigation by the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, and FAPERJ.
- 31.National Institute of Justice: Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, NIJ, Washington, DC, 2008.Google Scholar
- 33.J.I. Margem, F.M. Margem, and S.N. Monteiro: Proceedings of the 67th International Congress of the Brazilian Association for Metallurgy, Materials and Mining, pp. 2341–52, pub. ABM, Rio de Janeiro, 2012.Google Scholar
- 34.Y.M. Moraes, D.G.D. Ribeiro, F.M. Margem, S.N. Monteiro, and J.I. Margem: Characterization of Minerals, Metals and Materials, pp. 273–8, pub. Wiley, Hoboken, 2016.Google Scholar
- 35.L.F.C. Nascimento, L.I.F. Holanda, L.H.L. Louro, S.N. Monteiro, A.V. Gomes, and E.P. Lima Jr.: Characterization of Minerals, Metals and Materials, pp. 647–55, pub. Wiley, Hoboken, 2017.Google Scholar
- 36.K.Y. Lee, A. Delille, and A. Bismarck: Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano Polymer Composites, S. Kalia, B.S. Kaith, and I. Kaur, eds., Springer, Berlin, 2011, pp. 155–78.Google Scholar
- 37.W.D. Callister, Jr. and D.G. Rethwish, Materials Science and Engineering – An Introduction. 8th ed., Wiley, New York, 2010.Google Scholar