Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 48, Issue 10, pp 4425–4431 | Cite as

Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

  • Lucio Fabio Cassiano Nascimento
  • Luane Isquerdo Ferreira Holanda
  • Luis Henrique Leme Louro
  • Sergio Neves Monteiro
  • Alaelson Vieira Gomes
  • Édio Pereira LimaJr.
Topical Collection: Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials 2017


Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.



The authors acknowledge the support of this investigation by the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, and FAPERJ.


  1. 1.
    M.J.N. Jacobs and J.L.Dingenen: J. Mater Sci.,2001, vol. 36, pp. 3137-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.M. Cunniff: Textile Research J., 1992, vol. 62, pp. 495-501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Borvik, M. Langseth, O.S. Hopperstad and K.A. Malo: Int. J. Impact Eng., 1999, vol. 22, pp. 855-85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.S. Morye, P.J. Hine, R.A. Duckett, D.J. Carr and I.M. Warf: Compos. Sci. Technol., 2000, vol. 60, pp. 2631-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y.S. Lee, E.D. Wetzel and N.J. Wagner: J. Mater. Sci., 2003, vol. 38, pp. 2825-33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B.A. Cheeseman and T.A. Bogetti: Composite Structures, 2003, vol.61, pp. 161–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B.L. Lee, J.W. Song and J.E.Ward: J. Compos. Mater., 1994, vol. 28, pp. 1202-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Wambua, B. Vangrimde, S. Lomov and I. Verpoest: Composite Structures, 2007, vol. 77, pp. 232-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Marsyahyo, H.S. Jamasri, B. Rochardjo and N. Soekrisno: Ind. Textiles, 2009, vol. 39, pp. 13-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Ali, Z.R. Shaker, A. Khalina and S.M. Sapuan: Polym Plast Technol Eng., 2011, vol. 50, pp. 622-34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.H.Z. Abidin, M.A.H. Mohamad, A.M.A. Zaidi and W.A.W. Mat: Appl. Mech. Mater., 2013, vol. 315, pp. 612-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.K. Mohanty, M. Misra and L.T. Drzal: J. Polym. Environ., 2002, vol. 10, pp. 19-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.N. Netravali and S. Chabba: Mater Today., 2003, vol. 6, pp. 22-29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Crocker: Mater. Technol., 2008, vol. 2-3, pp. 174-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.N. Monteiro, F.P.D. Lopes, A.S. Ferreira and D.C.O. Nascimento: JOM, 2009, vol. 61, pp. 17-22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.J. John and S. Thomas: Carbohydr. Polym., 2008, vol. 71, pp. 343-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.N. Monteiro, F.P.D. Lopes, A.P. Barbosa, A.B. Bevitori, I.L.A. Silva and L.L.Costa: Met. Mat. Trans. A, 2011, vol. 42A, pp. 2963-74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    O. Faruk, A.K. Bledzki, H.P. Fink and M. Sain: Progr. Polym. Sci. 2012, vol. 37, pp. 1555-96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    V.K. Thakur, M.K. Thakur and R.K. Gupta: Intl. J. Polym Anal. Charact., 2014, vol. 19, pp. 256-71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Pappu, V. Patil, S. Jain, A. Mahindrakar, R. Haque, V.K. Thakur: Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2015, 79, pp. 449-58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O. Güven, S.N. Monteiro, E.A.B. Moura and J.W. Drelich: Polym. Reviews., 2016, vol. 56, pp. 702-36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Holbery and D. Houston: JOM, 2006, vol. 58, pp. 80-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Zah, R. Hischier, A.L. Leao and I.Braun: J. Clean. Prod., 2007, vol. 15, pp. 1032-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    N. Thomas, S.A. Paul, L.A. Pothan, B. Deepa. In: Kalia S, Kaith BS, Kaur I, eds: Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer Composites, Springer, Berlin, 2011, pp. 3-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.N. Monteiro, F.O. Braga, E.P. Lima Jr., L.H.L. Louro and J.W. Drelich, Polym. Eng Sci. 2016, doi: 10.1002/pen.24471.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.N. Monteiro, T.L. Milanezi, L.H.L. Louro, E.P. Lima Jr., F.O. Braga, A.V. Gomes and J.W. Drelich, Mater. Design, 2016, vol. 96, pp. 263-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    F.S. Da-Luz, E.P. Lima, L.H.L. Louro, S.N. Monteiro, Mater. Res., 2015, vol. 18, pp. 170-77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R.B. da Cruz, E.P. Lima Jr., S.N. Monteiro and L.H.L. Louro, Mater. Res., 2015, vol. 18, pp. 70-75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S.N. Monteiro, L.H.L. Louro, W. Trindade, C.N .Elias, C.L. Ferreira, E.S. Lima, R.P. Weber, J.M. Suarez, A.B.S. Figueiredo, W.A. Pinheiro, L.C. da Silva and E.P. Lima Jr., Metal. Mater. Trans. A, 2015, vol. 46A, pp. 4567-77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    L.A. Rohen, F.M. Margem, S.N. Monteiro, C.M.F. Vieira, B.M. Araujo and E.S. Lima, Mater. Res., 2015, vol. 18, pp. 55-62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    National Institute of Justice: Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, NIJ, Washington, DC, 2008.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    S.N. Monteiro, E.P. Lima Jr., L.H.L. Louro, L.C. Silva and J.W. Drelich, Metall. Mat. Trans. A, 2015, vol. 46A, pp. 37–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J.I. Margem, F.M. Margem, and S.N. Monteiro: Proceedings of the 67th International Congress of the Brazilian Association for Metallurgy, Materials and Mining, pp. 2341–52, pub. ABM, Rio de Janeiro, 2012.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y.M. Moraes, D.G.D. Ribeiro, F.M. Margem, S.N. Monteiro, and J.I. Margem: Characterization of Minerals, Metals and Materials, pp. 273–8, pub. Wiley, Hoboken, 2016.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    L.F.C. Nascimento, L.I.F. Holanda, L.H.L. Louro, S.N. Monteiro, A.V. Gomes, and E.P. Lima Jr.: Characterization of Minerals, Metals and Materials, pp. 647–55, pub. Wiley, Hoboken, 2017.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    K.Y. Lee, A. Delille, and A. Bismarck: Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano Polymer Composites, S. Kalia, B.S. Kaith, and I. Kaur, eds., Springer, Berlin, 2011, pp. 155–78.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    W.D. Callister, Jr. and D.G. Rethwish, Materials Science and Engineering – An Introduction. 8th ed., Wiley, New York, 2010.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucio Fabio Cassiano Nascimento
    • 1
  • Luane Isquerdo Ferreira Holanda
    • 1
  • Luis Henrique Leme Louro
    • 1
  • Sergio Neves Monteiro
    • 1
  • Alaelson Vieira Gomes
    • 1
  • Édio Pereira LimaJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Materials EngineeringMilitary Institute of Engineering – IMERio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations