Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 2842–2854 | Cite as

Factors Affecting the Inclusion Potency for Acicular Ferrite Nucleation in High-Strength Steel Welds

  • Yongjoon Kang
  • Seonghoon Jeong
  • Joo-Hee Kang
  • Changhee LeeEmail author


Factors affecting the inclusion potency for acicular ferrite nucleation in high-strength weld metals were investigated and the contribution of each factor was qualitatively evaluated. Two kinds of weld metals with different hardenabilities were prepared, in both, MnTi2O4-rich spinel formed as the predominant inclusion phase. To evaluate the factors determining the inclusion potency, the inclusion characteristics of size, phase distribution in the multiphase inclusion, orientation relationship with ferrite, and Mn distribution near the inclusion were analyzed. Three factors affecting the ferrite nucleation potency of inclusions were evaluated: the Baker–Nutting (B–N) orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion; the formation of an Mn-depleted zone (MDZ) near the inclusion; and the strain energy around the inclusion. Among these, the first two factors were found to be the most important. In addition, it was concluded that the increased chemical driving force brought about by the formation of an MDZ contributed more to the formation of acicular ferrite in higher-strength weld metals, because the B–N orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion was less likely to form as the transformation temperature decreased.


Ferrite Austenite Bainite Weld Metal Orientation Relationship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The work was supported by the Fundamental R&D Program for the Core Technology of Materials (K0006030, Development of joining materials by the control of phase transformation and critical energy) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MI, Korea), and by Fundamental Research Program of the Korean Institute of Materials Science (KIMS).


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongjoon Kang
    • 1
  • Seonghoon Jeong
    • 1
  • Joo-Hee Kang
    • 2
  • Changhee Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Materials Science and EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Materials Modeling and Characterization DepartmentKorea Institute of Materials ScienceChangwonKorea

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