Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 1960–1974 | Cite as

Effect of Multistage Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

  • Qingdong Liu
  • Haiming Wen
  • Han Zhang
  • Jianfeng GuEmail author
  • Chuanwei Li
  • Enrique J. Lavernia


The influence of Cu-rich precipitates (CRPs) and reverted austenite (RA) on the strength and impact toughness of a Cu-containing 3.5 wt pct Ni high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel after various heat treatments involving quenching (Q), lamellarization (L), and tempering (T) is studied using electron back-scatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. The QT sample exhibits high strength but low impact toughness, whereas the QL samples mostly possess improved impact toughness but moderate strength, but the QLT samples again have degraded impact toughness due to additional tempering. The dispersion of nanoscale CRPs, which are formed during tempering, is responsible for the enhanced strength but simultaneously leads to the degraded impact toughness. The RA formed during lamellarization contributes to the improved impact toughness. Based on the present study, new heat treatment schedules are proposed to balance strength and impact toughness by optimizing the precipitation of CRPs and RA.


Austenite Martensite Impact Toughness Atom Probe Tomography Unstable Crack Propagation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CB012904), the 111 Project of China (No. B13035), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2013M541517). We extend our gratitude to Professor Emeritus Shipu Chen at Shanghai Jiaotong University for kind discussions.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qingdong Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haiming Wen
    • 3
    • 4
  • Han Zhang
    • 5
  • Jianfeng Gu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chuanwei Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Enrique J. Lavernia
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of Materials Modification and Modelling, School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiaotong UniversityShanghaiP.R. China
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea ExplorationShanghai Jiaotong UniversityShanghaiP.R. China
  3. 3.Department of Nuclear Engineering & Health PhysicsIdaho State UniversityIdaho FallsUSA
  4. 4.Characterization and Advanced PIE DivisionIdaho National LaboratoryIdaho FallsUSA
  5. 5.Department for Microstructure Physics and Alloy DesignMax-Planck-Institut für EisenforschungDüsseldorfGermany
  6. 6.Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials ScienceUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA

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