Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 46, Issue 8, pp 3581–3591 | Cite as

Variation in the Chemical Driving Force for Intragranular Nucleation in the Multi-pass Weld Metal of Ti-Containing High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

  • Yongjoon Kang
  • Kyutae Han
  • Joo Hyun Park
  • Changhee LeeEmail author


The variation of the Mn-depleted zone (MDZ) around the inclusion during multi-pass welding of Ti-containing high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel was investigated by taking the changes in the impact toughness and microstructure into account. As-deposited weld metal specimens were prepared by single-pass, bead-in-groove welding, and reheated weld metal specimens were obtained by a thermal simulation technique. Two types of chemical compositions were prepared, mainly by controlling the Ti content in order to form two types of phases at inclusion/matrix interface: spinel and ilmenite. When the reheating thermal cycle is applied to the as-deposited weld metal, the MDZ depth varied depending on the inclusion surface phase; this could be explained by the competition of the homogenization effect and the dissolution effect, which occurred near the inclusion/matrix interface. In order to enhance the chemical driving force for intragranular nucleation in both as-deposited weld metal and reheated weld metal, the formation of ilmenite phase is recommended.


Austenite Weld Metal Ilmenite Prior Austenite Acicular Ferrite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the research fund of Hanyang University (HY-2011-G).


  1. 1.
    W.W. BoseFilho, A.L.M. Carvalho, and P. Bowen: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, vol. 460–461, pp. 436–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W.M. Garrison, Jr. and A.L. Wojcieszynski: Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 2007, vol. 464, pp. 321-29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. Levine and D.C. Hill: Metall. Trans. A, 1977, vol. 8A, pp. 1453-63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.-S. Byun, J.-H. Shim, J.-Y. Suh, Y.-J. Oh, Y.W. Cho, J.-D. Shim and D.N. Lee: Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 2001, vol. 319-321, pp. 326-31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.A. Ricks, P.R. Howell and G.S. Barritte: J. Mater. Sci., 1982, vol. 17, pp. 732-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. St-Laurent and G. L’Espérance: Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 1992, vol. 149, pp. 203-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.A. Farrar, Z. Zhang and S.R. Bannister: J. Mater. Sci., 1993, vol. 28, pp. 1385-90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T.-K. Lee, H.J. Kim, B.Y. Kang and S.K. Hwang: ISIJ Int., 2000, vol. 40, pp. 1260-68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K.-T. Park, S.W. Hwang, J.H. Ji and C.H. Lee: Met. Mater. Int., 2011, vol. 17, pp. 349-56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Yamamoto, T. Hasegawa and J. Takamura: ISIJ Int., 1996, vol. 36, pp. 80-86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Kim, Y. Kang and C. Lee: Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 2013, vol. 559, pp. 178-86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.M. Gregg and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1994, vol. 25A, pp. 1603-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ø. Grong, A.O. Kluken, H.K. Nylund, A.L. Dons and J. Hjelen: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1995, vol. 26A, pp. 525-34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. Madariaga and I. Gutiérrez: Acta Mater., 1999, vol. 47, pp. 951-60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Yamada, H. Terasaki and Y. Komizo: ISIJ Int., 2009, vol. 49, pp. 1059-62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Aihara, G. Shigesato, M. Sugiyama, and R. Uemori: Nippon Steel Technical Report No. 91, 2005, pp. 43–48.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.-H. Shim, Y.W. Cho, S.H. Chung, J.-D. Shim and D.N. Lee: Acta Mater., 1999, vol. 47, pp. 2751-60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.-H. Shim, J.-S. Byun, Y.W. Cho, Y.-J. Oh, J.-D. Shim and D.N. Lee: Scripta Mater., 2001, vol. 44, pp. 49-54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.-H. Shim, Y.-J. Oh, J.-Y. Suh, Y.W. Cho, J.-D. Shim, J.-S. Byun and D.N. Lee: Acta Mater., 2001, vol. 49, pp. 2115-22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.-S. Byun, J.-H. Shim, Y.W. Cho and D.N. Lee: Acta Mater., 2003, vol. 51, pp. 1593-1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.S. Seo, H.J. Kim and C. Lee: ISIJ Int., 2013, vol. 53, pp. 880-86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Kang, J. Jang, J.H. Park and C. Lee: Met. Mater. Int., 2014, vol. 20, pp. 119-27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Kang, K. Han, J.H. Park and C. Lee: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2014, vol. 45A, pp. 4753-57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Enomoto: Met. Mater., 1998, vol. 4, pp. 115-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Pan, Z. Yang, B. Bai and H. Fang: Acta. Metall. Sinica., 2003, vol. 39, pp. 1037-42.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.R. Yang and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: J. Mater. Sci., 1991, vol. 26, pp. 839-45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S.S. Babu and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Mater. Trans. JIM, 1991, vol. 32, pp. 679-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G.I. Rees and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Mater. Sci. Technol., 1994, vol. 10, pp. 353-58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Thewlis, J.A. Whiteman and D.J. Senogles: Mater. Sci. Technol., 1997, vol. 13, pp. 257-74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.R. Yang and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Mater. Sci. Technol., 1989, vol. 5, pp. 93-97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. Miyamoto, T. Shinyoshi, J. Yamaguchi, T. Furuhara, T. Maki and R. Uemori: Scripta Mater., 2003, vol. 48, pp. 371-77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Strangwood and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Proceedings of the Conference on Advances in Welding Science and Technology, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1987, pp. 187–91.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Strangwood: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K., 1987.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y.M. Kim, H. Lee and N.J. Kim: Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 2008, vol. 478, pp. 361-70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S.S. Babu: Curr. Opin. Solid St. M., 2004, vol. 8, pp. 267-78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C.H. Lee, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia and H.-C. Lee: Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 2003, vol. 360, pp. 249-57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    G.M. Evans: Weld. J., 1982, vol. 61, pp. 125s-132s.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    G.M. Evans: IIW Doc. II-A-460-78.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    E. Surian, J. Trotti, A. Cassanelli and L.A. de Vedia: Weld. J., 1994, vol. 73, pp. 45s-53s.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    E. Surian, M. Ramini de Rissone and L. de Vedia: Weld. J., 2005, vol. 84, pp. 53s-62s.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M.H. Avazkonandeh-Gharavol, M. Haddad-Sabzevar and A. Haerian: J. Mater. Sci., 2009, vol. 44, pp. 186-97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J.H. Chen, T.D. Xia and C. Yan: Weld. J., 1993, vol. 72, pp. 19s-27s.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Z.L. Zhou and S.H. Liu: Acta. Metall. Sinica, 1998, vol. 11, pp. 87-92.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    W.W. Bose-Filho, A.L.M. Carvalho and M. Strangwood: Mater. Charact., 2007, vol. 58, pp. 29-39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    K. Easterling: Introduction to the physical metallurgy of welding, p. 20, Butterworth, London, 1983.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A.-F. Gourgues, H.M. Flower and T.C. Lindley: Mater. Sci. Technol., 2000, vol. 16, pp. 26-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J.S. Park, C. Lee and J.H. Park: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2012, vol. 43B, pp. 1550-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. Hasegawa, K. Morita and N. Sano: Tetsu-to-Hagané, 1995, vol. 81, pp. 1109-13.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. Wakoh, T. Sawai and S. Mizoguchi: ISIJ Int., 1996, vol. 36, pp. 1014-21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Y.-B. Kang and H.-G. Lee: ISIJ Int., 2010, vol. 50, pp. 501-08.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    D.A. Porter, K.E. Easterling and M.Y. Sherif: Phase transformations in metals and alloys, p. 90, CRC Press, New York, 2009.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    R. Ciach, B. Dukiet-Zawadzka and T.D. Ciach: J. Mater. Sci., 1978, vol. 13, pp. 2676-86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    W.C. Leslie: The physical metallurgy of steels, p. 176, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongjoon Kang
    • 1
  • Kyutae Han
    • 2
  • Joo Hyun Park
    • 3
  • Changhee Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Materials Science and EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Technical Research LaboratoriesPOSCOPohangRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Materials EngineeringHanyang UniversityAnsanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations