Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 300–314 | Cite as

Heterogeneity of the Nugget Microstructure in a Thick 2050 Al Friction-Stirred Weld

Article

Abstract

The current article deals with 19-mm-thick welds of AA 2050. These joints obtained by friction stir butt welding on half penetration were subsequently strained and artificially aged. The nugget’s hardness weakens along the plate thickness from the top surface. This evolution is explained by the modification of the precipitation state, which overcomes the effects of the changes of size and preferred orientation of grains along the nugget’s depth. This modification of microstructure arises from the various strains, strain rates, and temperatures encountered in the different areas in the nugget. The postwelding treatment did not manage to suppress either the undermatching of the original nugget compared to the base material or the differences of thermal stabilities at the different depths in the nugget.

References

  1. 1.
    R.J. Rioja and J. Liu: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2012, vol. 43A, pp. 3325–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.E. Prasad, A.A. Gokhale, and R.J.H. Wanhill: Aluminium-Lithium Alloys: Processing, Properties and Applications, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2014.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.C. Wang and M.J. Starink: Int. Mater. Rev., 2005, vol. 50, pp. 193–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.L. Threadgill, A.J. Leonard, H.R. Shercliff, and P.J. Withers: Int. Mater. Rev., 2009, vol. 54 (2), pp. 49–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.S. Mishra and Z.Y. Ma: Mater. Sci. Eng. R, 2005, vol. 50, pp. 1–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.S. Mishra and M.W. Mahoney: Friction Stir Welding and Processing, ASM INTERNATIONAL, Materials Park, OH, 2007.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.W. Fonda and J.F. Bingert: Scripta Mater., 2007, vol. 57, pp. 1052–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.W. Fonda, K.E. Knipling, and J.F. Bingert: Scripta Mater., 2007, vol. 58, pp. 343–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K.N. Krishnan: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2002, vol. A327, pp. 246–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.P. Yan: Thesis, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand, 2008.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Colligan, I. Ucok, K. McTernan, P. Konkol, and J.R. Pickens: Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, Kobe Exhibition Center, Port Island, Kobe, Japan, 2001.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.M.Z. Ahmed, B.P. Wynne, W.M. Rainforth, and P.L. Threadgill: Scripta Mater., 2008, vol. 59, pp. 507–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. Proton, J. Alexis, E. Andrieu, J. Delfosse, M.-C. Lafont, and C. Blanc: Corr. Sci., 2013, vol. 73, pp. 130–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.-N. Avettand-Fènoël, R. Taillard, J. Laye, and T. Odièvre: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2014, vol. 45A, pp. 563–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E.A. Brandes and G.B. Brook: Smithells Metals Reference Book, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1992.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Lequeu, K.P. Smith, and A. Daniélou: J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2010, vol. 19(6), pp. 841–47.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Proton, J. Alexis, E. Andrieu, C. Blanc, J. Delfosse, L. Lacroix, and G. Odemer: J. Electrochem. Soc., 2011, vol. 158 (5), pp. C139–C147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Tsivoulas, J.D. Robson, C. Sigli, and P.B. Prangnell: Acta Mater., 2012, vol. 60, pp. 5245–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. De Geuser, F. Bley, A. Denquin, and A. Deschamps: XIV Int. Conf. on Small-Angle Scattering (SA 2009), J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 247, 2010, p. 012034.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Pouget and A. Reynolds: Int. J. Fatigue, 2008, vol. 30, pp. 463–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.W. Fonda, J.F. Bingert, and K.J. Colligan: Scripta Mater., 2004, vol. 51, pp. 243–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    V. Randle and O. Engler: Introduction to Texture Analysis, Macrotexture, Microtexture & Orientation Mapping, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Z.Y. Ma: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2008, vol. 39A, pp. 642–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Masaki, Y.S. Sato, M. Maeda, and H. Kokawa: Scripta Mater., 2008, vol. 58, pp. 355–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) No. 85-1327: Aluminum—International Centre for Diffraction Data, PCPDFWIN, version 2.02, 1999.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Arora, Z. Zhang, A. De, and T. DebRoy: Scripta Mater., 2009, vol. 61, pp. 863–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    P. Heurtier, C. Desrayaud, and F. Montheillet: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2002, vols. 396–402, pp. 1537–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. Schmidt and J. Hattel: Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2005, vol. 13, pp. 77–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Buffa, J. Hua, R. Shivpuri, and L. Fratini: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, vol. 419, pp. 381–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Buffa, J. Hua, R. Shivpuri, and L. Fratini: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, vol. 419, pp. 389–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.A. Schneider, A.C. Nunes, P.S. Chen, and G. Steele: J. Mater. Sci., 2005, vol. 40, pp. 4341–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. Ringer, B. Muddle, and I. Polmear: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1995, vol. 26A, pp. 1659–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.K. Shukla and W.A. Baeslack: Scripta Mater., 2007, vol. 56, pp. 513–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D.P. Field, T.W. Nelson, Y. Hovanski, and K.V. Jata: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2001, vol. 32A, pp. 2869–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R.W. Fonda and K.E. Knipling: Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2011, vol. 16 (4), pp. 288–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S.H. Kang, W.H. Bang, J.H. Cho, H.N. Han, K.H. Oh, C.G. Lee, and S.J. Kim: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2005, vols. 495–497, p. 901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. Jin, S. Saimoto, M. Ball, and P.L. Threadgill: Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, vol. 17, p. 1605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Y.S. Sato, H. Kokawa, K. Ikeda, M. Enomoto, S. Jogan, and T. Hashimoto: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2011, vol. 32A, pp. 941–48.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Deschamps, F. De Geuser, B. Decreus, and B. Malard: 13th Int. Conf. on Aluminium Alloys (ICAA13), H. Weiland, A.D. Rollett, and W.A. Cassada, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2012, pp. 1145–54.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Kelly and R.B. Nicholson, eds.: Strengthening Methods in Crystals, Elsevier Materials Science Series, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England, 1971.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    P. Upadhyay and A. Reynolds: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2014, vol. 45A, pp. 2091–2100.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie-Noëlle Avettand-Fenoel
    • 1
  • Roland Taillard
    • 1
  1. 1.Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR CNRS 8207Université Lille 1Villeneuve d’AscqFrance

Personalised recommendations