Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 44, Issue 12, pp 5365–5376 | Cite as

A Multiscale 3D Model of the Vacuum Arc Remelting Process

  • Koulis Pericleous
  • Georgi Djambazov
  • Mark Ward
  • Lang Yuan
  • Peter D. Lee
Symposium:Defects and Properties of Cast Metals


A three-dimensional, transient, multiscale model of the VAR process is presented, allowing novel simulations of the influence of fluctuations in arc behavior on the flow and heat transfer in the molten pool and the effect this has on the microstructure and defects. The transient behavior of the arc was characterized using the external magnetic field and surface current measurements, which were then used as transient boundary conditions in the model. The interactions of the magnetic field, turbulent metal flow, and heat transfer were modeled using CFD techniques and this “macro” model was linked to a microscale solidification model. This allowed the transient fluctuations in the dendritic microstructure to be predicted, allowing the first coupled three-dimensional correlations between macroscopic operational parameters and microstructural defects to be performed. It was found that convection driven by the motion of the arc caused local remelting of the mushy zone, resulting in variations in permeability and solute density. This causes variations in the local Rayleigh number, leading to conditions under which freckle solidification defects will initiate. A three-dimensional transient tracking of particle fall-in was also simulated, enabling predictions of “white spot” defects via quantification of the trajectory and dissolution of inclusions entering the melt.


Rayleigh Number Mushy Zone Molten Pool Crucible Wall Pool Shape 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to acknowledge the EPSRC grants EP/D505011/1, EP/D505003/1, and EP/D50502X/1 for project support. LY and PDL would like to acknowledge the assistance provided by the Research Complex at Harwell, which was funded in part by the EPSRC grant (EP/I02249X/1).


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koulis Pericleous
    • 1
  • Georgi Djambazov
    • 1
  • Mark Ward
    • 2
  • Lang Yuan
    • 3
  • Peter D. Lee
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Numerical Modelling and Process AnalysisUniversity of GreenwichLondonU.K.
  2. 2.School of Metallurgy and MaterialsUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamU.K.
  3. 3.Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of MaterialsThe University of ManchesterManchesterU.K.

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