Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 1908–1916 | Cite as

Spark Plasma Sintering of Nanostructured Aluminum: Influence of Tooling Material on Microstructure

  • Dongming Liu
  • Yuhong Xiong
  • Ying Li
  • Troy D. Topping
  • Yizhang Zhou
  • Chris Haines
  • Joseph Paras
  • Darold Martin
  • Deepak Kapoor
  • Julie M. Schoenung
  • Enrique J. Lavernia


The influence of tooling material, i.e., graphite and WC-Co, on the microstructure of a spark plasma sintering (SPS) consolidated, nanostructured aluminum alloy is studied in this paper. The results show that tooling selection influences microstructure evolution, independent of process parameters. The influence of tooling on microstructure is rationalized on the basis of the following factors: heating rate, electrical current density, localized heating, and imposed pressure. A theoretic framework, based on the physical properties of graphite and WC-Co, is formulated to explain the observed behavior.



This paper is based upon work supported by the US Army TACOM-ARDEC under contract No. W05QKN-09-C-118 and the Office of Naval Research with grant No. N00014-07-1-0745. Part of D. Liu’s work is also supported by the Young Scientist Foundation of Shandong Province, China (No. BS2009CL043), and the innovation foundation of Shandong University (2012TS032).


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dongming Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuhong Xiong
    • 2
  • Ying Li
    • 2
  • Troy D. Topping
    • 2
  • Yizhang Zhou
    • 2
  • Chris Haines
    • 3
  • Joseph Paras
    • 3
  • Darold Martin
    • 3
  • Deepak Kapoor
    • 3
  • Julie M. Schoenung
    • 2
  • Enrique J. Lavernia
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringShandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials ScienceUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA
  3. 3.Powder Metallurgy & Particulate TechnologyUS Army, TACOM-ARDECPicatinnyUSA

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