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Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 43, Issue 13, pp 5258–5270 | Cite as

Interplay Between Residual Stresses, Microstructure, Process Variables and Engine Block Casting Integrity

  • Anthony LombardiEmail author
  • Francesco D’Elia
  • Comondore Ravindran
  • Dimitry Sediako
  • B. S. Murty
  • Robert MacKay
Article

Abstract

The replacement of nodular cast iron with 319 type aluminum (Al) alloys in gasoline engine blocks is an example of the shift towards the use of lighter alloys in the automotive industry. However, excessive residual stress along the cylinder bore may lead to bore distortion, significantly reducing engine operating efficiency. In the current study, microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stress were characterized along the cylinder bridge of engine blocks following thermal sand reclamation (TSR), T7 heat treatment, and service testing of the casting. Neutron diffraction was effectively used to quantify the residual stress along both the Al cylinder bridge and the adjacent gray cast iron cylinder liners in the hoop, radial, and axial orientations with respect to the cylinder axis. The results suggest that an increase in cooling rate along the cylinder caused a significant refinement in microstructure at the bottom of the cylinder. In turn, this suggested an increase in alloy strength at the bottom of the cylinder relative to the top. This increased strength at the bottom of the cylinder likely reduced the susceptibility of the cylinder to rapid relief of residual stress at elevated temperature. In contrast, the coarse microstructure at the top of the cylinder likely triggered stress relief at an elevated temperature.

Keywords

Residual Stress Cylinder Liner Gray Cast Iron Gray Iron Engine Block 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to AUTO21 Network of Centres of Excellence and the Natural Sciences and Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for their financial support. The authors thank Nemak of Canada; the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) in Chalk River, Canada; Mr. Alan Machin and Dr. Sophie Lun Sin of Ryerson University; and Camden Hubbard of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The authors also thank Professor Alex McLean of the University of Toronto for his review and useful comments. Finally, the authors are grateful to the members of the Center for Near-Net-Shape Processing of Materials at Ryerson University and the members of the Micro-Nano research group at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras for assistance during this project.

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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony Lombardi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francesco D’Elia
    • 1
  • Comondore Ravindran
    • 1
  • Dimitry Sediako
    • 2
  • B. S. Murty
    • 3
  • Robert MacKay
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Near-Net-Shape Processing of MaterialsRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Canadian Neutron Beam CentreNational Research CouncilChalk RiverCanada
  3. 3.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia
  4. 4.Nemak of Canada CorporationWindsorCanada

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