Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 43, Issue 13, pp 5122–5127 | Cite as

Liquid-Metal-Induced Embrittlement of Zn-Coated Hot Stamping Steel

  • Chang Wook Lee
  • Dong Wei Fan
  • Il Ryoung Sohn
  • Seok-Jae Lee
  • Bruno C. De Cooman


Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement (LMIE) of galvanized hot stamping steel occurs due to the simultaneous application of stress and the presence of a liquid Zn surface layer during the hot stamping process. The mechanism specific to the liquid metal induced embrittlement occurring during hot stamping was investigated in detail. It was found that when a tensile stress was applied, liquid Zn could penetrate along grain boundaries in the steel matrix at temperatures above the Liquid + α-Fe (Zn) → Γ1 peritectic transformation temperature of 1055 K (782 °C). The results show that an increase of the annealing time prior to hot stamping is an effective way to prevent LMIE by the elimination of the liquid phase.


Austenite Cathodic Protection Galvanize Steel Steel Matrix 22MnB5 Steel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of POSCO. The suggestions of Dr. Nai-Yong Tang, Teck Metals, with regard to interpretation of the results reported in the manuscript are greatly appreciated.


  1. 1.
    P. Åkerström: Doctoral Thesis, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden, 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Kleiner, M. Geiger, and A. Klaus: CIRP Ann. Manufact. Technol., 2005, vol. 52, pp. 521–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Mori, K. Akita, and Y. Abe: Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact., 2007, vol. 47, pp. 321–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Liu, X. Jin, H. Dong, and J. Shi: Mater. Charact., 2011, vol. 62, pp. 223–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Karbasian and A.E. Tekkaya: J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2010, vol. 210, pp. 2103–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Aspacher: 1st Int. Conf. on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel, Kassel, Germany, 2008, pp. 268–72.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Steinhoff, N. Barbakadze, and M. Schupfer: Proc. GALVATECH 2011 Conf., Genova, Italy, 2011, pp. 319–26.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Steinhoff: 1st Int. Seminar on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel, Hanover, Germany, Oct. 28, 2010.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B.C. De Cooman and J.G. Speer: Fundamentals of Steel Product Physical Metallurgy, 1st ed., AIST, Warrendale, PA, 2011.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.W. Fan, H.S. Kim, J.K. Oh, K.G. Chin, and B.C. De Cooman: ISIJ Int., 2010, vol. 50, pp. 561–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Borsetto, A. Ghiotti, and S. Bruchi: Key Eng. Mater., 2009, vols. 410–411, pp. 289–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Neugebauer, T. Altan, M. Geiger, M. Kleiner, and A. Sterzing: CIRP Annals-Manufact. Technol., 2006, vol. 55, pp. 793–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Kondratiuk, P. Kuhn, E. Labrenz, and C. Bischoff: Surf. Coat. Technol., 2011, vol. 205, pp. 4141–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Abbasi, A. Saeed-Akbari, and M. Naderi: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2012, vol. 538, pp. 356–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.W. Fan, R.B. Park, Y.R. Cho, and B.C. De Cooman: Steel Res. Int., 2010, vol. 81, pp. 292–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    O. Kubascheski: Iron-Binary Phase Diagrams, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1982, pp. 87–88.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.P. Lynch: Eng. Fail. Anal., 1994, vol. 1, pp. 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.G. Nicholas and C.F. Old: J. Mater. Sci., 1979, vol. 14, pp. 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.R. Marder: Prog. Mater. Sci., 2000, vol. 45, pp. 191–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C.W. Lee, D.W. Fan, S.J. Lee, I.R. Sohn, and B.C. De Cooman: Proc. GALVATECH 2011 Conf., Genova, Italy, 2011, pp. 327–34.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P.J.L. Fernandes, R.E. Clegg, and D.R.H. Jones: Eng. Fail. Anal., 1994, vol. 1, pp. 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Imai, Y. Yoshikawa, T. Toki, T. Nishibata, K. Uematsu, M. Uchihara, and T. Takayama: SEAISI Q., 2005, vol. 34(3), p. 47.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.M. van Genderen, W.C. Verloop, J. Loiseaux, and G.C. Hensen: Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel, Kassel, Germany, 2011, pp. 145–52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang Wook Lee
    • 1
  • Dong Wei Fan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Il Ryoung Sohn
    • 3
  • Seok-Jae Lee
    • 1
  • Bruno C. De Cooman
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT)POSTECHPohangKorea
  2. 2.ArcelorMittal Global R&DEast Chicago USA
  3. 3.Technical Research LaboratoriesPOSCOGwangyangKorea

Personalised recommendations