Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 41, Issue 9, pp 2348–2356 | Cite as

Softening Kinetics in the Subcritical Heat-Affected Zone of Dual-Phase Steel Welds

  • E. Biro
  • J. R. McDermidEmail author
  • J. D. Embury
  • Y. Zhou


Welds in dual-phase (DP) steels exhibit heat-affected zone (HAZ) softening in which the tempered or subcritical HAZ exhibits a lower hardness vs that of the parent material. The rate of this softening reaction with respect to welding heat input was determined for four DP steels by making several bead-on-plate laser welds using a variety of heat inputs and measuring the resulting minimum hardness. The reduction in hardness was then fit to the Avrami equation, enabling a comparison of the relative heat needed to soften each steel. It was found that the heat input required for HAZ softening decreased as the C content of the martensite within the DP structure increased. However, the presence of carbide forming alloying elements such as Cr and Mo was able to increase resistance to softening.


Welding Martensite Cementite Bainite Heat Input 
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The authors would like that the staff of the Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy and Dr. X. Wang, who assisted with the preparation and the analysis of the TEM images and SAD patterns. The authors also wish to thank ArcelorMittal for providing the experimental materials used and for permission to publish this work.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Biro
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. R. McDermid
    • 3
    Email author
  • J. D. Embury
    • 1
  • Y. Zhou
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.ArcelorMittal Global ResearchHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

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