Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 1441–1447 | Cite as

Evolution of Carbide Precipitates in 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel during Long-Term Service in a Power Plant

  • Yong Yang
  • Yiren Chen
  • Kumar Sridharan
  • Todd R. Allen


Carbide precipitation from the steel matrix during long-term high-temperature exposure can adversely affect the fracture toughness and high-temperature creep resistance of materials with implications on the performance of power plant components. In the present work, carbide evolution in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel after long-term aging during service was investigated. Boiler pipe samples of this steel were removed from a supercritical water-cooled coal-fired power plant after service times of 17 and 28 years and a mean operational temperature of 810 K (537 °C). The carbide precipitation and coarsening effects were studied using the carbon extraction replica technique followed by analysis using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The carbides extracted using an electrolytic technique were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction to evaluate phase transformations of the carbides during long-term service. Small ball punch and Vickers hardness were used to evaluate the changes in mechanical performance after long-term aging during service.


  1. 1.
    R.G. Baker and J. Nutting: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1959, vol. 192, pp. 257–68.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Fujita, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, and M. Kikuchi: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2002, vol. 33A, pp. 3339–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G.D. Pigrova, V.M. Sedov, and Y.I. Archakov: Met. Sci. Heat Treatment, 1997, vol. 39, pp. 371–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.P. Pizzo and G.L. Mandurrago: Trans. ASME, 1981, vol. 103, pp. 62–70.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.M. Abdel-Latif, J.M. Corbett, and D.M.R. Taplin: Met. Sci., 1982, vol. 16, pp. 90–96.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.A. Stevens and D. Lonsdale: J. Mater. Sci., 1985, vol. 20, pp. 3631–38.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.L. Klueh: Proc. Conf., Environmental Degradation of Engineering Materials, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA, 1977, pp. 643–51.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B.J. Wendell and J.A. Van Den Avyle: Metall. Trans. A, 1960, vol. 11A, pp. 1275–85.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Ohba, K. Kimura, F. Abe, K. Yagi, and I. Nonaka: Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, vol. 21, pp. 476–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.L. James, L. Klueh Ronald, and R.L. William: Metall. Trans. A, 1975, vol. 6A, pp. 1949–55.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Orr, F.R. Beckitt, and G.D. Fawkers: Ferritic Steel for Fast Reactor Steam Generators, Proc. Int. Conf. Held by the British Nuclear Energy Society, Distributed by Telford, London, UK, 1997, pp. 91–109.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    X. Mao and H. Takahashi: J. Nucl. Mater., 1987, vol. 150, pp. 42–52.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Gandy: “The Grade 22 Low Alloy Steel Handbook,” Technical Report, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, 2005, pp. 30–31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong Yang
    • 1
  • Yiren Chen
    • 2
  • Kumar Sridharan
    • 1
  • Todd R. Allen
    • 1
  1. 1.Engineering Physics DepartmentUniversity of Wisconsin–MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Argonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

Personalised recommendations