Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 40, Issue 11, pp 2718–2728 | Cite as

Mechanisms for Solidification Crack Initiation and Growth in Aluminum Welding



In the present work, mechanisms are proposed for solidification crack initiation and growth in aluminum alloy 6060 arc welds. Calculations for an interdendritic liquid pressure drop, made using the Rappaz–Drezet–Gremaud (RDG) model, demonstrate that cavitation as a liquid fracture mechanism is not likely to occur except at elevated levels of hydrogen content. Instead, a porosity-based crack initiation model has been developed based upon pore stability criteria, assuming that gas pores expand from pre-existing nuclei. Crack initiation is taken to occur when stable pores form within the coherent dendrite region, depending upon hydrogen content. Following initiation, crack growth is modeled using a mass balance approach, controlled by local strain rate conditions. The critical grain boundary liquid deformation rate needed for solidification crack growth has been determined for a weld made with a 16 pct 4043 filler addition, based upon the local strain rate measurement and a simplified strain rate partitioning model. Combined models show that hydrogen and strain rate control crack initiation and growth, respectively. A hypothetical hydrogen strain rate map is presented, defining conceptually the combined conditions needed for cracking and porosity.



The authors are grateful to BAM for providing internal funding for this research.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)BerlinGermany
  2. 2.University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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