Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 40, Issue 7, pp 1588–1603 | Cite as

Strengthening Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Multimodal Nickel-Base Superalloys

  • R.W. Kozar
  • A. Suzuki
  • W.W. Milligan
  • J.J. Schirra
  • M.F. Savage
  • T.M. Pollock
Article

Abstract

Polycrystalline γ-γ′ superalloys with varying grain sizes and unimodal, bimodal, or trimodal distributions of precipitates have been studied. To assess the contributions of specific features of the microstructure to the overall strength of the material, a model that considers solid-solution strengthening, Hall–Petch effects, precipitate shearing in the strong and weak pair-coupled modes, and dislocation bowing between precipitates has been developed and assessed. Cross-slip-induced hardening of the Ni3Al phase and precipitate size distributions in multimodal microstructures are also considered. New experimental observations on the contribution of precipitate shearing to the peak in flow stress at elevated temperatures are presented. Various alloys having comparable yield strengths were investigated and were found to derive their strength from different combinations of microconstituents (mechanisms). In all variants of the microstructure, there is a strong effect of antiphase boundary (APB) energy on strength. Materials subjected to heat treatments below the γ′ solvus temperature benefit from a strong Hall–Petch contribution, while supersolvus heat-treated materials gain the majority of their strength from their resistance to precipitate shearing.

Keywords

Yield Strength Ni3Al Strengthening Mechanism Precipitate Size Pair Coupling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors express their gratitude to Mike Long, Engineous Software (SIMULIA, Province, RI), for his assistance with iSight software, and to Dennis Dimiduk and Triplicane Parthasarathy for their valuable discussions. The financial support of the DARPA/AIM project under Grant No. F005484, sponsored by Pratt & Whitney, is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    C. Ducrocq, A. Lasalmonie, and Y. Honnrat: in Superalloys, D.N Duhl, G. Maurer, S. Antolovich, C. Lund, and S. Reichman, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1988, pp. 63–72.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.H. Caless and D.F. Paulonis: in Superalloys, D.N Duhl, G. Maurer, S. Antolovich, C. Lund, and S. Reichman, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1988, pp. 101–10.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Hattori, M. Takekawa, D. Furrer, and R.J. Noel: in Superalloys, R.D Kissinger, D.J. Deye, D.L. Anton, A.D. Cetel, M.V. Nathal, T.M Pollock, and D.A. Woodford, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1996, pp. 705–12.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T.E. Howson, Jr. W.H. Couts, and J.E. Coyne: in Superalloys, M. Gell, C.S. Kortovich, R.H. Bricknell, W.B. Kent, and J.F. Radavich, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1984, pp. 277–86.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F.R.N. Nabarro and H.L. deVilliers: The Physics of Creep: Creep and Creep-Resistant Alloys, Taylor & Francis, London, 1995.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Dennison, P.D. Holmes, and B. Wilshire: Mater. Sci. Eng., 1978, vol. 33, pp. 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. J. Foreman and M. J. Makin: Philos. Mag. A, 1966, vol. 14, pp. 911–24.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Gleiter and E. Hornbogen: Mater. Sci. Eng., 1968, vol. 2, pp. 285–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Feltham: J. Phys. D, 1968, vol. 1, pp. 303–08.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    L.M. Brown and R.K. Ham: in Strengthening Methods in Crystals, A. Kelly and R.B. Nicholson, eds., Elsevier Publishing Co., Ltd., Essex, England, 1971, pp. 9–135.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.L. Castagne: J. Phys., 1966, vol. 27, pp. 233–39.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. Huther and B. Reppich: Z. Metallkd., 1978, vol. 69, pp. 628–34.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E.J. Lee and A.J. Ardell: in Strength of Metals and Alloys, P. Haasen, V. Gerold, and G. Kostorz, eds., Pergamon Press, Ltd., Oxford, England, 1979, pp. 633–38.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.M. Wusatowska-Sarnek, G. Ghosh, G.B. Olson, M.J. Blackburn, and M. Aindow: J. Mater. Res., 2003, vol. 18, pp. 2653–63.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Venkadesan, P. Rodriguez, K.A. Padmanabhan, P.V. Sivaprasad, and C. Phaniraj: Mater. Sci. Eng., 1992, vol. A154, pp. 69–74.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Meyers and K. Chawla: Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999.MATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.W. Thompson: Acta Metall., 1977, vol. 25, pp. 63–66.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Schilnzer and E. Nembach: Acta Metall., 1992, vol. 40, pp. 803–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Wallow and E. Nembach: Scripta Metall., 1996, vol. 34, pp. 499–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L.A. Gypen and A. Deruyttere: J. Mater. Sci., 1977, vol. 12, pp. 1028–33.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.L. Fleischer: Acta Metall., 1963, vol. 11, pp. 203–09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N.F. Mott and F.R.N. Nabarro: in 1947 Bristol Conference on Strength of Solids, Physical Society of London, 1948, p. 1.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Friedel: Dislocations, Pergamon Press, Oxford, England, 1964.MATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    U.F. Kocks: Metall. Trans. A, 1985, vol. 16A, pp. 2109–30.ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H.A. Roth, C.L. Davis, and R.C. Thomson: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1997, vol. 28A, pp. 1329–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.H. Westbrook: Trans. AIME, 1957, vol. 209, pp. 898–904.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    P.A. Flinn: Trans. AIME, 1960, vol. 218, pp. 145–54.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    B.H. Kear and H.G.F Wilsdorf: Trans. TMS-AIME, 1962, vol. 224, pp. 362–64.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    O. Veyssiere and G. Saada: in Dislocations in Solids, F.R.N. Nabarro and M.S. Duesbery, eds., North Holland, Amsterdam, 1996, pp. 253–441.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. Caillard and J.L. Martin: Thermally Activated Mechanisms in Crystal Plasticity, Pergamon, London, 2003.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    K.J. Hemker, M.J. Mills, and W.D. Nix: J. Mater. Res., 1992, vol. 7, pp. 2059–69.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    B. Viguier, J.L. Martin, and J. Bonneville, in Dislocations in Solids, F.R.N. Nabarro and M.S. Duesbery, eds., North Holland, Amsterdam, 2002, p. 459.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S.S. Ezz and P.B. Hirsch: Philos. Mag. A, 1994, vol. 69, pp. 105–27.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Devincre, P. Veyssiere, and G. Saada: Philos. Mag. A, 1999, vol. 79, pp. 1609–28.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    V. Paidar, D.P. Pope, and V. Vitek: Acta. Metall., 1984, vol. 32, pp. 435–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A.J. Ardell: Metall. Trans. A, 1985, vol. 16A, pp. 2131–66.ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    P.H. Thornton, R.G. Davies, and T.L. Johnston: Metall. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, pp. 207–18.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    B.H. Kear and B.J. Piearcey: Trans. TMS-AIME, 1967, vol. 239, pp. 1209–15.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    V.K. Sikka and E.A. Loria: in Superalloys, D.N Duhl, G. Maurer, S. Antolovich, C. Lund, and S. Reichman, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1988, pp. 203–12.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Monier, C. Bertrand, J.-P. Dallas, M.-F. Trichet, and M. Cornet: Mater. Sci. Eng., 1994, vol. A188, pp. 133–39.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Nitz and E. Nembach: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1997, vol. 29A, pp. 799–807.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Banik and K.A. Green: in Superalloys, T.M. Pollock, R.D. Kissinger, and R.R. Bowman, eds., 2000, pp. 69–74.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Dollar and I.M. Bernstein: in Superalloys, D.N Duhl, G. Maurer, S. Antolovich, C. Lund, and S. Reichman, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1988, pp. 275–84.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Y. Mishima, S. Ochiai, N. Hamao, M. Yodogawa, and T. Suzuki: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met., 1986, vol. 27, pp. 648–55.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P.A. Flinn: Strengthening Mechanisms in Solids, ASM, Metals Park, OH, 1962, p. 17.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    R.G. Davies and N.S. Stoloff: Trans. TMS-AIME, 1965, vol. 233, pp. 714–19.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    S. Miura, Y. Mishima, and T. Suzuki: J. Jpn. Inst. Met., 1992, vol. 56, pp. 1214–20.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    F.E. Haredia and D.P. Pope: High-Temperature Ordered Intermetallic Alloys II, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1987, pp. 213–20.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. Lopez and G.F. Hancock: Phys. Status Solidi A, 1970, vol. 2, pp. 469–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    K. Aoki and O. Izumi: Phys. Status Solidi A, 1976, vol. 38, pp. 587–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    C.T. Liu and D.P. Pope: in Intermetallic Compounds, J.H. Westbrook and R.L Fleischer, eds., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1995.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    R.J. Taunt and B. Ralph: Philos. Mag., 1974, vol. 30, pp. 1379–94.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    M. Vittori and A. Mignone: Mater. Sci. Eng., 1985, vol. 71, pp. 29 –37.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    D. M. Dimiduk, A.W. Thompson, and J.C. Williams: Philos. Mag. A, 1993, vol. 67 (3), pp. 675–98.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    T. Kruml, B. Viguier, J. Bonneville, P. Spatig, and J.L. Martin: MRS Symp. Proc., 1997, vol. 460, pp, 529–34.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    D. McLean: Met. Sci., 1984, vol. 18, pp. 249–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    P.W. Voorhees: J. Stat. Phys., 1985, vol. 38, pp. 231–53.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    S.C. Hardy and P.W. Voorhees: Metall. Trans. A, 1988, vol. 19A, pp. 2713–21.ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    T. Eguchi, Y. Tomokiyo, and S. Matsumura: Phase Transitions, 1987, vol. 8, pp. 213–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    I.M. Lifshitz and V.V Slyozov: J. Phys. Chem. Solids., 1961, vol. 19, pp. 35–50.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    U.F. Kocks, A.S. Argon, and M.F. Ashby: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Slip, Pergamon Press, New York, NY, 1975.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    U. Lagerpusch, V. Mohles, and E. Nembach: Mater. Sci. Eng., 2001, vols. A319–A321, pp. 176–78.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    T.A. Parthasarathy, S.I. Rao, and D.M. Dimiduk: Superalloys, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2004, pp. 887–96.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    S.I. Rao, T.A. Parthasarathy, D.M. Dimiduk, and P.M. Hazzledine: Philos. Mag. A, 2006, vol. 86 (4), pp. 215–25.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    P. Sarosi, G. Viswanathan, D. Whitis, and M. Mills: Superalloys, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2004, pp. 989–96.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    R. Ebeling and M.F. Ashby: Philos. Mag., 1966, vol. 13, pp. 805–34.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    P.B. Hirsch and F.J. Humphreys: Proc. R. Soc., 1970, vol. A318, pp. 45–72.ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • R.W. Kozar
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Suzuki
    • 1
    • 3
  • W.W. Milligan
    • 4
  • J.J. Schirra
    • 5
  • M.F. Savage
    • 6
    • 7
  • T.M. Pollock
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Materials TechnologyBettis Atomic Power LaboratoryWest MifflinUSA
  3. 3.Ceramic and Metallurgy TechnologiesGE Global ResearchNiskayunaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA
  5. 5.Aircraft GroupPratt & WhitneyEast HartfordUSA
  6. 6.Materials and Processes EngineeringPratt & WhitneyEast HartfordUSA
  7. 7.Group Strategy and DevelopmentPratt & WhitneyEast HartfordUSA

Personalised recommendations