Textures in Single-Crystal Aluminum Friction Stir Spot Welds

  • Toshiya Shibayanagi
  • Adrian P. Gerlich
  • Keizo Kashihara
  • Thomas H. North


The present article examines the textural features produced during friction stir spot welding of single-crystal aluminum sheet. The crystal has the {111} plane perpendicular to the normal direction (ND) of the sheet, and the \( \left\langle { 1 10} \right\rangle \) direction parallel to the growth direction (GD). Friction stir spot welding was carried out using a rotation speed of 1500 rpm and a dwell time of 2 seconds, and completed spot welds were characterized using a combination of optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The EBSD measurements indicate there are no significant changes in orientation in locations more than 840 μm from the stir-zone extremity. The orientation distribution in the thermomechanically-affected zone (TMAZ) region conformed with the {110}⊥ND orientation within 580 μm of the stir-zone extremity. In the location immediately adjacent to the stir-zone extremity, there was a deviation from the {110}//ND orientation due to a combination of compressive loading perpendicular to the stir-zone boundary and shear loading in the direction of tool rotation. It is suggested a {111}⊥ND texture in the stir zone is associated with material flow imposed by the thread on the rotating pin.



The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Also, the authors thank the The Light Metal Educational Foundation Inc. in Japan for financial support.


  1. 1.
    E.O. Hall: Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 1951, vol. B64, pp. 747–53.ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.J. Petch: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1953, vol. 174, pp. 25–28.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    U.F. Kocks: Texture and Anisotropy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998, pp. 183–203.MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Hasegawa and H. Fukutomi: Mater. Trans., 2002, vol. 43, pp. 2243–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.W.K. Honeycombe: The Plastic Deformation of Metals, Edward Arnold Publishers, London, UK, 1984, p. 28.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Winther, L. Margulies, S. Schmidt, and H.F. Poulsen: Acta Mater., 2004, vol. 52, pp. 2863–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. Randle and O. Engler: Introduction to Texture Analysis: Macrotexture, Microtexture and Orientation Mapping, Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 2000, pp. 134–86.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O. Engler, L. Lochte, and J. Hirsch: Acta Mater., 2007, vol. 55, pp. 5449–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Matsumoto, T. Shibayanagi, and Y. Umakoshi: Acta Mater., 1997, vol. 54, pp. 431–5l.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Mishra and Z.Y. Ma: Mater. Sci. Eng., 2005, vol. R50, pp. 1–78.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.C. Bersaas, A. Oosterkamp, and L.D. Oosterkamp: World Patent No. WO 01/28732A1, 2001.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.-Q. Su, T.W. Nelson, R. Mishra, and M. Mahoney, Acta Mater., 2003, vol. 51, pp. 713–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.N. Krishnan: Mater. Sci. Eng., 2002, vol. A327, pp. 246–51.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y.S. Sato, H. Kokawa, M. Enomoto, and S. Jogan: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1999, vol. 30A pp. 2429–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.W. Fonda and J.F. Bingert: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2004, vol. 35A, pp. 1478–99.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Zettler, J. dos Santos, T. Donath, M. Beckmann, and D. Lohwasser: Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, Cambridge, 2007, TWI Ltd., Abington, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.A. Schneider and A.C. Nunes: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2004, vol. 35B, pp. 777–83.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Biallas, R. Braun, C. Dalle Donne, G. Staniek, and W.A. Kaysser: Proc. 1st Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, Cambridge, 1999, TWI Ltd., Abington, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Colegrove and H.R. Shercliff: Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2004, vol. 9, pp. 483–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.J. Peel, A. Steuwer, P.J. Withers, T. Dickerson, Q. Shi, and H. Shercliff: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2006, vol. 37A, pp. 2183–93.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. Jene, G. Dobman, G. Wagner, and D. Eifler: Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, Cambridge, 2007, TWI Ltd., Abington, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M.M. Allatalah, C.L. Davis, and M. Strangwood: Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, Cambridge, 2007, TWI Ltd., Abington, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.A. Schneider and A.C. Nunes: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2004, vol. 35B, pp. 777–83.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y.S. Sato, H. Kokawa, K. Ikeda, M. Enomoto, S. Jogan, and T. Hashimoto: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2001, vol. 32A, pp. 941–48.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D.P. Field, T.W. Nelson, Y. Hovanski, and K.V. Jata: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2001, vol. 32A, pp. 2869–77.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.P. Field and T.W. Nelson: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2002, vols. 408–412, pp. 1507–12.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Jin, C. Ko, S. Saimoto, and P.L. Threadgill: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2000, vols. 331–337, pp. 1725–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.L. Pouchou, D. Boivin, Y. Renollet, and C. Gallais: Michochimica Acta, 2004, vol. 145, pp. 171–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S.H. Kang, W.H. Bang, J.H. Cho, H.N. Han, K.H. Oh, C.G. Lee, and S.-J. Kim: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2005, vols. 495–497, pp. 901–06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R.W. Fonda, J.F. Bingert, and K.J. Colligan: Scripta Mater., 2004, vol. 51, pp. 243–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R.W. Fonda, J.A. Wert, A.P. Reynolds, and W.Tang: Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2007, vol. 12, pp. 304–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    P.B. Prangnell and C.P. Heason: Acta Mater., 2005, vol. 53, pp. 3179–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    W. Woo, H. Choo, D.W. Brown, P.K. Iaw, and Z. Feng: Scripta Mater., 2006, vol. 54, pp. 1859–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    W. Woo, H. Choo, D.W. Brown, S.C. Vogel, P.K. Liaw, and Z. Feng: Acta Mater., 2006, vol. 54, pp. 3871–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Y.N. Wang, C.I. Chang, C.J. Lee, H.K. Lin, and J.C. Huang: Scripta Mater., 2006, vol. 55, pp. 637–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A.P. Reynolds, E. Hood, and W. Tang: Scripta Mater. 2005, vol. 52, pp. 491–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    D.T. Zhang, M. Suzuki, and K. Maruyama: Acta Metall. Sinica, 2006, vol. 19, pp. 335–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Hwan, C. Park, Y.S. Sato, and H. Kokawa: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2003, vol. 34A, pp. 987–94.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    O. Engler, X.W. Kong, and K. Lucke: Acta Mater., 2001, vol. 49, pp. 1701–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Gerlich, G.A. Cingara, and T.H. North: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2006, vol. 37A, pp. 2773–86.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Yamamoto, A. Gelrich, and T.H. North: J. Mater. Sci., 2007, vol. 42, pp. 7657–66.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Su, A. Gerlich, T.H. North, and G.J. Bendzsak: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2007, vol. 38A, pp. 584–95.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Yamamoto, A. Gerlich, T.H. North, and K. Shinozaki: Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2008, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 583–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. Gerlich, M. Yamamoto, T. Shibayanagi, and T.H. North: SAE Techn. Ser., 2008, No. 2008-01-0146.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. Su, A. Gerlich, and T.H. North: SAE Techn. Ser., 2006, No. 2006-01-0971.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. Gerlich, P. Su, and T.H. North: J. Mater. Sci., 2005, vol. 40, pp. 6473–81.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Yamamoto, P. Su, A. Gerlich, and T. North: SAE Techn. Ser., 2007, No. 2007-01-1700.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    P. Heurtier, M.J. Jones, C. Desrayaud, J.H. Driver, F. Montheillet, and D. Allehaux: J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2006, vol. 171, pp. 348–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    P. Su, A. Gerlich, T.H. North, and G.J. Bendzsak: Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2006, vol. 11, pp. 163–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    A.P. Gerlich: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2007.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M.E. Kassner, R.D. Doherty, D.A. Hughes, F.J. Humphreys, J.J. Jonas, D.J. Jensen, W.E. King, T.R. McNelley, H.J. McQueen, and A.D. Rollett: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1997, vol. 238, pp. 219–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    G.R. Canova, U.F. Kocks, and J.J. Jonas: Acta Metall., 1984, vol. 32, pp. 211–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshiya Shibayanagi
    • 1
  • Adrian P. Gerlich
    • 2
  • Keizo Kashihara
    • 3
  • Thomas H. North
    • 4
  1. 1.Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI)Osaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Materials EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringWakayama National College of Technology WakayamaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations