Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 1875–1886 | Cite as

Deformation-induced phase transformation and strain hardening in type 304 austenitic stainless steel

  • Amar K. De
  • John G. Speer
  • David K. Matlock
  • David C. Murdock
  • Martin C. Mataya
  • Robert J. ComstockJr.


Deformation-induced phase transformation in a type 304 austenitic stainless steel has been studied in tension at room temperature and −50 °C. The evolution of transformation products was monitored using X-ray diffraction (XRD) line profile analysis of diffraction peaks from a single XRD scan employing the direct comparison method. Crystallographic texture transitions due to deformation strain have been evaluated using (111) γ pole figures. The tensile stress-strain data have been analyzed to explain the influence of underlying deformation-induced microstructural changes and associated texture changes in the steel. It is found that the initial stage of rapidly decreasing strain hardening rate in type 304 steel is primarily influenced by hcp ɛ-martensite formation, and the second stage of increasing strain hardening rate is associated with an increase in the α′-martensite formation. The formation of ɛ-martensite is associated with a gradual strengthening of the copper-type texture components up to 15 pct strain and decreasing with further strain at −50 °C. Texture changes during low-temperature deformation not only change the mechanism of ɛ-martensite formation but also influence the strain rate sensitivity of the present steel.


Austenite Martensite Material Transaction Austenitic Stainless Steel Strain Rate Sensitivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. Angel: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1954, vol. 177, pp. 165–74.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Cina: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1954, vol. 177, pp. 406–22.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Shrinivas, S.K. Varma, and L.E. Murr: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1995, vol. 26A (3), pp. 661–71.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.F. Breedis and W.D. Robertson: Acta Metall., 1962, vol. 10, pp. 1077–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.L. Mangonon, Jr. and G. Thomas: Metall. Trans. A, 1970, vol. 1A (6), pp. 1577–86.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Suzuki, H. Kojima, K. Suzuki, T. Hashimoto, and M. Ichihara: Acta Metall., 1977, vol. 25, pp. 1151–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.W. Brooks, M.H. Loretto, and R.E. Smallman: Acta Metall., 1979, vol. 27, pp. 1829–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.M. Kelly and J. Nutting: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1961, vol. 197, pp. 199–211.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Lecroisey and A. Pineau: Metall. Trans. A, 1972, vol. 3A (2), pp. 387–96.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.A. Venables: J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1964, vol. 25, pp. 693–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.W. Brooks, M.H. Loretto, and R.E. Smallman: Acta Metall., 1979, vol. 27, pp. 1839–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G.L. Huang, D.K. Matlock, and G. Krauss: Metall. Trans. A, 1989, vol. 20A, pp. 1239–46.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.J. Guntner and R.P. Reed: Trans. ASM, 1962, vol. 55, pp. 399–419.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. Tamura, T. Maki, and H. Hato: Trans. ISIJ, 1970, vol. 10 (3), pp. 163–72.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.K. De, D.C. Murdock, M.C. Mataya, J.G. Speer, and D.K. Matlock: Scripta Mater., 2004, vol. 50 (12), pp. 1445–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.K. Varma, J. Kalyanam, L.E. Murr, and V. Srinivas: J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1994, vol. 13, pp. 107–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P.L. Mangonon, Jr. and G. Thomas: Metall. Trans. A, 1970, vol. 1A (6), pp. 1587–94.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    B.D. Cullity: Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., MA, 1978, pp. 285–92, 351, 368, 411–15, 447–56, 508.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G.B. Olson and M. Azrin: Metall. Trans. A, 1978, vol. 9A (5), pp. 713–21.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.E. Schramm and R.P. Reed: Metall. Trans. A, 1975, vol. 6A (7), pp. 1345–51.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    X. Feaugas: Acta Mater., 1999, vol. 47 (13), pp. 3617–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A.K. De, N. Cabaňas, and B.C. De Cooman: Z. Metallkd., 2002, vol. 93 (3), pp. 228–35.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H.M. Otte: Acta Metall., 1957, vol. 5, pp. 614–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Hu and S.R. Goodman: TMS-AIME, 1963, vol. 227, pp. 1454–55.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Hu and R.S. Cline: J. Appl. Phys., 1961, vol. 32 (5), pp. 760–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R.E. Smallman and D. Green: Acta Metall., 1964, vol. 12, pp. 145–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S.R. Goodman and H. Hu: TMS-AIME, 1964, vol. 230, pp. 1413–19.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    B.E. Warren: X-Ray Diffraction, Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1969, pp. 275–91.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Fujita and S. Ueda: Acta Metall., vol. 20, pp. 759–67.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Worked Examples in the Geometry of Crystals, Institute of Materials, London, 1987.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Sato, E. Chishima, K. Soma, and T. Mori: Acta Metall., 1982, vol. 30, pp. 1177–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    C.M. Wayman: Introduction to the Crystallography of Martensitic Transformations, Macmillan Series in Material Science, New York, 1964.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M.S. Wechsler, D.S. Lieberman, and T.A. Read: Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Metall. Engrs, 1953, vol. 197, p. 1503.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.R. Patel and M. Cohen: Acta Metall., 1953, vol. 1, pp. 531–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Rohatgi, K.S. Vecchio, and G.T. Gray, III: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2001, vol. 32A (1), pp. 135–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Sato, Y. Yamaji, and T. Mori: Acta Metall., 1986, vol. 34 (2), pp. 287–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M.F. Ashby: Philos. Mag., 1970, vol. 21 (170), pp. 399–424.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    E. Romhanji, V. Milenković, and D. Drobnjak: Z. Metallkd., 1992, vol. 83 (2), pp. 110–14.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International & TMS-The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amar K. De
    • 1
  • John G. Speer
    • 2
  • David K. Matlock
    • 3
  • David C. Murdock
    • 4
  • Martin C. Mataya
    • 5
  • Robert J. ComstockJr.
    • 6
  1. 1.Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research CenterColorado School of MinesGolden
  2. 2.Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringColorado School of MinesGolden
  3. 3.Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringColorado School of MinesGolden
  4. 4.Micromotion, Division of EmersonBoulder
  5. 5.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos Alamos
  6. 6.Carbon Steel Product ResearchAK Steel CorporationMiddletown

Personalised recommendations