Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 36, Issue 7, pp 1911–1920 | Cite as

An analysis of the relationship between grain size, solute content, and the potency and number density of nucleant particles

  • Mark Easton
  • David StJohn


To be able to determine the grain size obtained from the addition of a grain refining master alloy, the relationship between grain size (d), solute content (defined by the growth restriction factor Q), and the potency and number density of nucleant particles needs to be understood. A study was undertaken on aluminium alloys where additions of TiB2 and Ti were made to eight wrought aluminum alloys covering a range of alloying elements and compositions. It was found from analysis of the data that \(d = \frac{a}{{\sqrt[3]{{pct TiB_2 }}}} + \frac{b}{Q}\). From consideration of the experimental data and from further analysis of previously published data, it is shown that the coefficients a and b relate to characteristics of the nucleant particles added by a grain refiner. The term a is related to the maximum density of active TiB2 nucleant particles within the melt, while b is related to their potency. By using the analysis methodology presented in this article, the performance characteristics of different master alloys were defined and the effects of Zr and Si on the poisoning of grain refinement were illustrated.


Material Transaction Master Alloy Nucleant Particle Growth Restriction Factor Titanium Addition 
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Copyright information

© ASM International & TMS-The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Easton
    • 1
  • David StJohn
    • 2
  1. 1.the School of Physics and Materials EngineeringMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.the Division of Materials EngineeringUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

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