Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 861–877 | Cite as

Deformation and fracture in martensitic carbon steels tempered at low temperatures

  • George Krauss

Abstract

This article reviews the strengthening and fracture mechanisms that operate in carbon and low-alloy carbon steels with martensitic microstructures tempered at low temperatures, between 150 °C and 200 °C. The carbon-dependent strength of low-temperature-tempered (LTT) martensite is shown to be a function of the dynamic strain hardening of the dislocation and transition carbide substructure of martensite crystals. In steels containing up to 0.5 mass pct carbon, fracture occurs by ductile mechanisms of microvoid formation at dispersions of second-phase particles in the matrix of the strain-hardened tempered martensite. Steels containing more than 0.5 mass pct carbon with LTT martensitic microstructures are highly susceptible to brittle intergranular fracture at prior austenite grain boundaries. The mechanisms of the intergranular fracture are discussed, and approaches that have evolved to minimize such fracture and to utilize the high strength of high-carbon hardened steels are described.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Maddin: in Martensite, G.B. Olson and W.S. Owen, eds., ASM INTERNATIONAL, Materials Park, OH, 1992, pp. 11–19.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.A. Grange, C.R. Hibral, and L.F. Porter: Metall. Trans. A, 1977, vol. 8A, pp. 1775–87.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Krauss: Iron Steel Inst. Jpn. Int., 1995, vol. 35, pp. 349–59.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Krauss and C.J. McMahon, Jr.: in Martensite, G.B. Olson and W.S. Owen, eds., ASM INTERNATIONAL, Materials Park, OH, 1992, pp. 295–321.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.S. Smith: in Martensite, G.B. Olson and W.S. Owen, eds, ASM INTERNATIONAL, Materials Park, OH, 1992, pp. 21–39.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.M. Wayman: Introduction to the Crystallography of Martensite Transformations, MacMillan, New York, NY, 1964.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B.A. Bilby and J.W. Christian: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1961, vol. 197, pp. 122–31.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Cohen: Trans. TMS-AIME, 1962, vol. 224, pp. 638–57.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P.G. Winchell and M. Cohen: in Electron Microscopy and the Strength of Crystals, G. Thomas and J. Washburn, eds., Interscience, New York, NY, 1963, p. 995.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P.G. Winchell and M. Cohen: Trans. ASM, 1962, vol. 55, pp. 347–61.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.H. Aborn: Trans. ASM, 1956, vol. 48, pp. 51–85.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G.R. Speich: Trans. TMS-AIME, 1969, vol. 245, pp. 2553–64.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W.C. Leslie and R.J. Sober: Trans. ASM, 1967, vol. 60, pp. 459–84.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G.R. Speich and H. Warlimont: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1968, vol. 206, pp. 385–92.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Krauss: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1999, vols. 273–275, pp. 40–57.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.M. Kelly and J. Nutting: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1961, vol. 197, pp. 199–211.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.R. Marder and G. Krauss: Trans. ASM, 1967, vol. 60, pp. 651–60.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.R. Marder and G. Krauss: Trans. ASM, 1969, vol. 62, pp. 957–64.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Krauss and A.R. Marder: Metall. Trans., 1971, vol. 2, pp. 2343–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Maki, K. Tsuzaki, and I. Tamura: Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., 1986, vol. 20, pp. 207–14.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.M. Marder and A.R. Marder: Trans. ASM, 1969, vol. 62, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C.A. Apple, R.N. Caron, and G. Krauss: Metall. Trans., 1974, vol. 5, pp. 593–99.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    B.P.J. Sandvik and C.M. Wayman: Metall. Trans. A, 1983, vol. 14A, pp. 809–22.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G.B. Olson: in Deformation, Processing and Structure, G. Krauss, ed., ASM, Materials Park, OH, 1984, pp. 391–424.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.A. Zaccone and G. Krauss: Metall. Trans. A, 1989, vol. 20A, pp. 188–91.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M.A. Zaccone, J.B. Kelley, and G. Krauss: in Carburizing: Processing and Performance, G. Krauss, ed., ASM INTERNATIONAL, Materials Park, OH, 1989, pp. 249–65.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    K.H. Jack: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1951, vol. 169, pp. 26–36.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Hirotsu and S. Nagakura: Acta Metall., 1972, vol. 20, pp. 645–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C.S. Roberts, B.L. Averbach, and M. Cohen: Trans. ASM, 1953, vol. 45, pp. 576–604.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Krauss: in Phase Transformations in Ferrous Alloys, A.R. Marder and J.I. Goldstein, eds., TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1984, pp. 101–23.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    G.R. Speich and K.A. Taylor: in Martensite, G.B. Olson and W.S. Owen, eds., ASM INTERNATIONAL, Materials Park, OH, 1992, pp. 243–75.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H.-C. Lee and G. Krauss: in Fundamentals of Aging and Tempering in Bainitic and Martensitic Steel Products, G. Krauss and P.E. Repas, eds., ISS, Warrendale, PA, 1992, pp. 39–43.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Hayakawa, T. Hara, S. Matsuoka, and K. Tsuzaki: J. Jpn. Inst. Met., 2000, vol. 64, pp. 460–66.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    F. Zia-Ebrahimi and G. Krauss: Acta Metall., 1984, vol. 32, pp. 1767–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.J. Leap and J.C. Wingert: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2000, vol. 30A, pp. 93–114.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. Krauss and D.K. Matlock: J. Phys. IV, Suppl. J. Phys. III, 1995, vol. 5, pp. C8-51–C8-60.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    G. Krauss: Hart.-Tech. Mitt., 1991, vol. 46, pp. 7–15.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    D.K. Matlock, G. Krauss, and F. Zia-Ebrahimi: in Deformation, Processing and Structure, G. Krauss, ed., ASM, Materials Park, OH, 1984, pp. 47–87.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Saeglitz and G. Krauss: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1997, vol. 28A, pp. 377–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A.S. Argon, J. Im, and R. Safoglu: Metall. Trans. A, 1975, vol. 6A, pp. 825–37.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A.S. Argon and J. Im: Metall. Trans. A, 1975, vol. 6A, pp. 839–51.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    P.T. Purtscher: Scripta Metall., 1992, vol. 26, pp. 343–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    P.W. Bridgeman: ASM Trans., 1944, vol. 32, pp. 553–74.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    L.-A. Norstrom: Scand. J. Metall., 1976, vol. 5, pp. 159–65.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P.M. Kelly and M. Kehoe: in New Aspects of Martensitic Transformation, Suppl. to Trans. JIM, 1976, vol. 17, pp. 399–404.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    B. Gu, J.M.B. Losz, and G. Krauss: Proc. Int. Conf. on Martensitic Transformations, JIM, Sendaé, Japan, 1986, pp. 367–74.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf: Metall. Trans. A, 1985, vol. 16A, pp. 2091–2108.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J.H. Hollomon and L.D. Jaffee: Trans. AIME, 1945, vol. 162, pp. 223–49.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. Saeglitz and G. Krauss: Proc. 6th Int. Seminar of IFHT, Korean Society for Heat Treatment, Seoul, Korea, 1997, pp. 316–23.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    H. Muir, B.L. Averbach, and M. Cohen: Trans. ASM, 1955, vol. 47, pp. 380–99.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    T.E. Swarr and G. Krauss: Metall. Trans. A, 1976, vol. 7A, pp. 41–48.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    R.A. Grange: Trans. ASM, 1966, vol. 59, pp. 26–48.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    T. Inoue, S. Matsuda, Y. Okamura, and K. Aoki: Trans. JIM, 1970, vol. 11, pp. 36–43.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    W.M. Garrison, Jr. and N.R. Moody: J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1987, vol. 48, pp. 1035–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    T.B Cox and J.R. Low: Metall. Trans., 1974, vol. 5, pp. 1457–70.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    G.R. Speich and W.A. Spitzig: Metall. Trans. A, 1982, vol. 13A, pp. 2239–58.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Y. Tomita: Metall. Trans. A, 1988, vol. 19A, pp. 1155–61.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    W.M. Garrison, Jr.: Metall. Trans. A, 1986, vol. 17A, pp. 669–78.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    G.Y. Lai, W.E. Wood, R.A. Clark, V.F. Zackay, and E.R. Parker: Metall. Trans., 1974, vol. 5, pp. 1663–70.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    R.O. Ritchie, B. Francis, and W.L. Server: Metall. Trans. A, 1976, vol. 7A, pp. 831–38.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    G.C. Yerby: Master’s Thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Co, 1996.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    V. Kerlins and A. Phillips: in Fractography, Metals Handbook, 9th ed., ASM INTERNATIONAL, 1987, vol. 12, pp. 12–71.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    G. Thomas: Metall. Trans. A, 1978, vol. 9A, pp. 439–50.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    J.P. Materkowsi and G. Krauss: Metall. Trans. A, 1979, vol. 10A, pp. 1643–51.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    S. Okamoto, D.K. Matlock, and G. Krauss: Scripta Metall. Mater., 1991, vol. 25, pp. 39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    S. Okamoto, D.K. Matlock, and G. Krauss: in Martensitic Transformations, C.M. Wayman and J. Perkins, eds., Monterey Institute of Advanced Studies, Carmel, CA, 1993, pp. 451–56.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    G. Krauss: Haert. Tech. Mitt., 1998, vol. 53, pp. 147–53.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    D.L. Yaney: Master’s Thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 1987.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    N. Bandyopadhyay and C.J. McMahon, Jr.: Metall. Trans. A, 1983, vol. 14A, pp. 1313–25.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    R.S. Hyde, D.K. Matlock, and G. Krauss: 40th MWSP Conf. Proc., ISS, Warrendale, PA, 1998, pp. 921–28.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    G. Roberts, G. Krauss, and R. Kennedy: Tool Steels, 5th ed., ASM INTERNATIONAL, Materials Park, OH, 1998.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    T. Ando and G. Krauss: Metall. Trans. A, 1981, vol. 12A, pp. 1283–90.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    S.K. Banerji, C.J. McMahon, Jr., and H.C. Feng: Metall. Trans. A, 1978, vol. 9A, pp. 237–47.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    R.S. Hyde, G. Krauss, and D.K. Matlock: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1994, vol. 25, pp. 1229–40.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    V. Raghavan: Phase Diagrams of Ternary Iron Alloys: Part 3, Ternary Systems Containing Iron and Phosphorous, 1st ed., Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta, 1988, pp. 33–44.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    M.-W. Lui and I. Le May: in Grain Boundaries in Engineering Materials, J.L. Walter, J.H. Westbrook, and D.A. Woodford, eds, Claitors Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1975, pp. 397–408.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. Reguly: Ph.D. Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sol, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1999.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    T. Ando and G. Krauss: Acta Metall., 1981, vol. 29, pp. 351–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    J. Van De Sanden: Practical Metallography, 1980, vol. 17, pp. 238–48.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    G. Krauss: in ASM Handbook, vol. 4, Heat Treating, ASM INTERNATIONAL, Materials Park, OH, 1991, pp. 363–75.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    G. Krauss: in ASM Handbook, vol. 19, Fatigue and Fracture, ASM INTERNATIONAL, Materials Park, OH, 1996, pp. 680–690.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    D.P. Koistinen: Trans. ASM, 1958, vol. 50, pp. 227–41.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    J.A. Sanders: Master’s Thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 1993.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    B.A. James: Ph.D. Thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 1994.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    J.P. Wise and G. Krauss: Proc. 41st Mechanical and Steel Processing Conf., ISS, Warrendale, PA, 1999, pp. 377–85.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    J.P. Wise: Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, private communication, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International amp;TMS-The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Krauss

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations