Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 1131–1146 | Cite as

An experimental investigation of fretting fatigue in Ti-6Al-4V: the role of contact conditions and microstructure

  • T. A. Venkatesh
  • B. P. Conner
  • S. Suresh
  • A. E. Giannakopoulos
  • T. C. Lindley
  • C. S. Lee


A systematic investigation of the fretting fatigue behavior of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in both the mill-annealed (MA) and the solution-treated and overaged (STOA) conditions was carried out. A sphere-on-flat fretting fatigue device was used that facilitated real-time control and monitoring of all the relevant parameters such as the contact geometry, contact (normal and tangential) loads, and bulk alternating stress. While different sets of experiments were conducted to examine the influence of the bulk stress, the tangential load, and the normal load, respectively, on fretting fatigue response, the effect of microstructure on fretting fatigue was explored with experiments on the acicular, Widmanstätten, and martensitic microstructures as well. In experiments where the contact loads were maintained constant and the bulk stress was varied, fretting reduced the fatigue strength of Ti-6Al-4V. For this case, the “strength reduction factor” was higher for the experiments with higher tangential loads. For cases where the bulk stress and the normal or the tangential loads were maintained constant, lower fretting fatigue lives were obtained at larger tangential loads and at smaller normal loads. Of all the microstructures studied, preliminary results on the martensitic structure suggest an enhanced fretting fatigue resistance, compared to the basic STOA or the MA microstructure. Using the measured maximum static friction coefficient for Ti-6Al-4V, the experimentally observed contact and stickzone radii were found to exhibit good agreement with analytical predictions. Furthermore, conditions for crack initiation were determined through the application of the recently developed adhesion model for fretting fatigue. The model predictions of weak adhesion and crack initiation were validated with experimental observations of stick-slip behavior and fretting fatigue failures, respectively.


Fatigue Material Transaction Stress Intensity Factor Strength Reduction Factor Tangential Load 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R.B. Waterhouse: Fretting Fatigue, Applied Science Publishers, London, 1981.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.B. Waterhouse and T.C. Lindley: Fretting Fatigue, European Structural Integrity Society Publication 18, London, 1994.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.B. Waterhouse: Int. Mater. Rev., 1992, vol. 37, pp. 77–97.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T.C. Lindley: Int. J. Fatigue, 1997, vol. 19, pp. S39-S49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    I.V. Papadopoulos, P. Davoli, C. Gorla, M. Filippini, and A. Bernasconi: Int. J. Fatigue, 1997, vol. 19, pp. 219–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.E. Giannakopoulos, T.A. Venkatesh, T.C. Lindley, and S. Suresh: Acta Mater., 1999, vol. 47, pp. 4653–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B.U. Wittkowsky, P.R. Birch, J. Dominguez, and S. Suresh: Fatigue Fracture Eng. Mater. Structures, 1999, vol. 22, pp. 307–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    B.U. Wittkowsky, P.R. Birch, J. Dominguez, and S. Suresh: in Fretting Fatigue: Current Technology and Practices, ASTM STP 1367, D.W. Hoeppner, V. Chandrasekaran, and C.B. Elliot, eds., ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, 1999, pp. 213–27.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.L. Hutson, T. Nicholas, and R. Goodman: Int. J. Fatigue, 1999, vol. 21, pp. 663–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Cortez, S. Mall, and J.R. Calcaterra: Int. J. Fatigue, 1999, vol. 21, pp. 709–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Goto and R.B. Waterhouse: in Titanium ′80: Science and Technology, H. Kimura and O. Izumi, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1980, vol. 3, pp. 1837–44.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Blanchard, C. Colombie, V. Pellerin, S. Fayeulle, and L. Vincent: Metall. Trans. A, 1991, vol. 22A, pp. 1535–44.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.A. Hines and G. Lütjering: Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Structures, 1999, vol. 22, pp. 657–665.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.S. Bellows, S. Muju, and T. Nicholas: Int. J. Fatigue, 1999, vol. 21, pp. 687–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Hertz: J. Reine. Angewandte Mathematik, 1882, vol. 92, pp. 156–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.D. Mindlin: J. Appl. Mech., 1949, vol. 16, pp. 259–68.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V.K. Semenchenko: Surface Phenomena in Metals and Alloys, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1962.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.S. McFarlane and D. Tabor: Proc. R. Soc., London, 1950, vol. A202, pp. 244–53.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R.O. Ritchie, B.L. Boyce, J.P. Campbell, O. Roder, A.W. Thompson, and W.W. Milligan: Int. J. Fatigue, 1999, vol. 21, pp. 653–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Cottrell and J.R. Rice: Int. J. Fracture, 1980, vol. 16, pp. 155–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.C. Newman and I.S. Raju: Eng. Fracture Mech., 1981, vol. 15, pp. 185–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G.R. Yoder, L.A. Cooley, and T.W. Crooker: in Fracture Mechanics: 16th Symp., ASTM STP 868, M.F. Kanninen and A.T. Hopper, eds., ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 392–405.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Welsch, R. Boyer, and E.W. Collings: Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1995.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R.A. Antoniou and T.C. Radtke: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1997, vol. 237, p. 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International & TMS-The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. A. Venkatesh
    • 1
  • B. P. Conner
    • 1
  • S. Suresh
    • 1
  • A. E. Giannakopoulos
    • 1
  • T. C. Lindley
    • 2
  • C. S. Lee
    • 3
  1. 1.the Department of Materials Science and EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridge
  2. 2.the Department of Materials Science and EngineeringImperial College of Science, Technology and MedicineLondonUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.the Pohang University of Science and TechnologySouth Korea

Personalised recommendations