Advertisement

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 605–613 | Cite as

Role of solid-state skeletal sintering during processing of Mo-Cu composites

  • John L. Johnson
  • Randall M. German
Article

Abstract

Mo-Cu composites with Mo contents up to 85 wt pct can be processed by either infiltration of a presintered Mo skeleton with liquid Cu or by liquid-phase sintering of mixed Mo and Cu powders. For both cases, the effects of particle size, sintering temperature, and sintering time on densification and microstructural evolution are compared. The effects of transition metal additions on the densification of Mo-Cu are also investigated. The liquid-phase sintering densification rate of Mo-Cu is much slower than in traditional liquid-phase sintering and is similar to the solid-state densification rate of elemental Mo. Furthermore, the poor densification behavior and absence of slumping for compositions up to 50 vol pct Cu indicate that the high dihedral angle of the Mo-Cu system stabilizes the formation of a rigid Mo skeleton during liquid-phase sintering. Results from a computer simulation that takes into account mass transport via both solid-state and liquid-phase mechanisms show that the solubility of Mo in Cu is sufficient for rapid densification, but confirm that the sintering behavior of Mo-20 vol pct Cu is best described by solid-state skeletal sintering. In this case, the liquid phase promotes microstructural coarsening by solution reprecipitation but contributes little to densification because of the rigid Mo skeleton.

Keywords

Material Transaction Dihedral Angle Solid Volume Fraction Sintered Density Liquid Volume Fraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P.L. Blue: U.S. Patent 3,685,134, Aug. 22, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.C. Kothari: Powder Metall. Int., 1982, vol. 14 (3), pp. 139–43.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Neumann and E. Kny: Proc. 12th Int. Plansee Sem. ’89 Conf., Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte, Austria, 1989, vol. 4, pp. 113–37.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Kny: Proc. 12th Int. Plansee Sem. ’89 Conf., Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte, Austria, 1989, vol. 1, pp. 763–72.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Williams: Ceram. Bull., 1991, vol. 70 (4), pp. 714–21.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.B. Oenning and I.S.R. Clark: U.S. Patent 4,988,386, Jan. 29, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Ludvik, S. Clair, R. Krischmann, and I. Clark: Advances in Powder Metallurgy, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, 1991, vol. 2, pp. 225–39.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Zweben: JOM, 1992, vol. 44 (7), pp. 15–23.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T.W. Kirk, S.G. Caldwell, and J.J. Oakes: Advances in Powder Metallurgy, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, 1992, vol. 9, pp. 115–22.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.L. Johnson and R.M. German: Advances in Powder Metallurgy, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, 1993, vol. 4, pp. 201–13.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.M. German, K.F. Hens, and J.L. Johnson: Int. J. Powder Metall., 1994, vol. 30 (1), pp. 91–102.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.L. Johnson, K.F. Hens, and R.M. German: Tungsten and Refractory Metals—1994, Metal Powder Industry Federation, Princeton, NJ, 1995, pp. 246–52.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W.S. Wang and K.S. Hwang: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1998, vol. 29A, pp. 1509–16.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Uskokovic, M. Zivkovic, B. Zivanovic, and M.M. Ristic: High Temp.-High Pressures, 1971, vol. 3, pp. 461–66.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Uskokovi, J. Petkovic, and M.M. Ristic: Sci. Sintering, 1976, vol. 8, pp. 129–48.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.M. German and Z.A. Munir: J. Less-Common Met., 1978, vol. 58, pp. 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.M. German and C.A. Lombard: Int. J. Powder Metall. Powder Technol., 1982, vol. 18 (2), pp. 147–56.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R.M. German: Progr. Powder Metall., 1981, vol. 37, pp. 195–211.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R.M. German: Sci. Sintering, 1983, vol. 15, pp. 27–42.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    P.E. Zovas and R.M. German: Metall. Trans. A, 1984, vol. 15A, pp. 1103–10.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    V.V. Skorokhod, I.V. Uvarova, and T.E. Landau: Sov. Powder Met. Metall. Ceram., 1983, vol. 22, pp. 185–88.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    W.J. Huppmann and W. Bauer: Powder Metall., 1975, vol. 18, pp. 249–58.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    I.H. Moon and J.S. Lee: Powder Metall. Int., 1977, vol. 9, pp. 23–24.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    I.H. Moon and J.S. Lee: Powder Metall., 1979, vol. 22, pp. 5–7.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K.V. Sebastian and G.S. Tendolkar: Int. J. Powder Metall., 1979, vol. 15, pp. 45–53.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    V.V. Panichkina, M.M. Sirotyuk, and V.V. Skorokhod: Sov. Powder Met. Metall. Ceram., 1982, vol. 21, pp. 447–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    V.V. Skorokhod, Y.M. Solonin, N.I. Filippov, and A.N. Roshcin: Sov. Powder Met. Metall. Ceram., 1983, vol. 22, pp. 696–99.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.S. Lee, W.A. Kaysser, and G. Petzow: Modern Developments in Powder Metallurgy, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, 1984, vol. 15, pp. 489–506.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    V.V. Skorokhod, V.V. Panichkina, and N.K. Prokushev: Sov. Powder Met. Metall. Ceram., 1986, vol. 25, pp. 621–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    N.K. Prokushev and V.P. Smirnov: Sov. Powder Met. Metall. Ceram., 1986, vol. 25, pp. 727–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.S. Lee, I.S. Ahn, and I.H. Moon: Refractory and Hard Metals, 1986, June, pp. 112–16.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.L. Johnson and R.M. German: Metall. Trans. A, 1993, vol. 24A, pp. 2369–77.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    J.L. Johnson and R.M. German: Int. J. Powder Metall., 1994, vol. 30 (1), pp. 91–102.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.L. Johnson and R.M. German: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 1996, vol. 27B, pp. 901–09.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J.L. Johnson and R.M. German: Int. J. Powder Metall., 1999, vol. 35 (8), pp. 39–48.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R.M. German: Metall. Trans. A, 1985, vol. 16A, pp. 1247–52.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J.L. Johnson and R.M. German: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1996, vol. 27A, pp. 441–50.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    R.M. German: Sintering Theory and Practice, Wiley, New York, NY, 1996, p. 528.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    H. Jones: Met. Sci. J., 1971, vol. 5, pp. 15–18.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Farooq: Ph.D. Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 1988.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. Fischmeister, A. Kannapan, and Lai-Y.: Phys. Sintering, 1969, vol. 1 (1), pp. G.1-G.13.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    N.K. Prokushev and V.P. Smirnov: Sov. Powder Met. Metall. Ceram., 1986, vol. 25, pp. 727–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Binary Phase Diagrams, T.B. Massalski, ed., ASM, Metals Park, OH, 1986.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R.M. German and E.O. Olevsky: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1998, vol. 29A, pp. 3057–67.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P.W. Vorhees and M.E. Glicksman: Metall. Trans. A, 1984, vol. 15A, pp. 1081–88.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    S.C. Yang, S.S. Mani, and R.M. German: J. Met., 1990, vol. 42 (4), pp. 16–19.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    W.A. Kaysser and G. Petzow: Powder Metall., 1985, vol. 28, pp. 145–50.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    C.M. Kipphut, A. Bose, S. Farooq, and R.M. German: Metall. Trans. A, 1988, vol. 19A, pp. 1905–13.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    C.M. Kipphut, R.M. German, A. Bose, and T. Kishi: Advances in Powder Metallurgy, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, 1989, vol. 2, pp. 415–29.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    W.D. Kingery: J. Appl. Phys., 1959, vol. 30, pp. 301–06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    S. Farooq and R.M. German: Sintering ’87, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1988, vol. 1, pp. 459–64.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    J.L. Johnson, A. Upadhyaya, and R.M. German: Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, 1995, vol. 3, pp. 219–28.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. Upadhyaya and R.M. German: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1998, vol. 29A, pp. 2631–38.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    V.N. Ermenko, R.V. Minakova, and M.M. Churakov: Sov. Powder Met. Metall. Ceram., 1977, vol. 16, pp. 283–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    J.L. Johnson, A. Upadhyaya, and R.M. German: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 1998, vol. 29B, pp. 857–66.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International & TMS-The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • John L. Johnson
    • 1
  • Randall M. German
    • 2
  1. 1.Development EngineerHowmet Castings, an Alcoa BusinessMorristown
  2. 2.The Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity Park

Personalised recommendations