Effects of denosumab on bone metabolism and bone mineral density in kidney transplant patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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The use of immunosuppressive agents, especially glucocorticoids, are associated with increased risks of bone loss in kidney transplant patients. Denosumab, a potent antiresorptive agent, has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with CKD. However, its effects on bone metabolism and BMD in kidney transplant patients remain unclear.
A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database from inception through April 2018 to identify studies evaluating denosumab’s effect on changes in bone metabolism and BMD from baseline to post-treatment course in kidney transplant patients. Study results were pooled and analyzed utilizing random-effects model. The protocol for this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42018095055).
Five studies (a clinical trial and four cohort studies) with a total of 162 kidney transplant patients were identified. The majority of patients had a baseline eGFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. After treatment (≥ 6 to 12 months), there were significant increases in BMD with standardized mean differences (SMDs) of 3.26 (95% CI 0.88–5.64) and 1.83 (95% CI 0.43 to 3.22) for lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. There were also significant increases in T scores with SMDs of 0.92 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.25) and 1.14 (95% CI 0.17 to 2.10) for lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. After treatment, there were no significant changes in serum calcium (Ca) or parathyroid hormone (PTH) from baseline to post-treatment course (≥ 6 months) with mean differences (MDs) of 0.52 (95% CI, − 0.13 to 1.16) mmol/L and − 13.24 (95% CI, − 43.85 to 17.37) ng/L, respectively. The clinical trial data demonstrated more asymptomatic hypocalcemia in the denosumab (12 episodes in 39 patients) than in the control (1 episode in 42 patients) group. From the cohort studies, the pooled incidence of hypocalcemia following denosumab treatment was 1.7% (95% CI 0.4 to 6.6%). All reported hypocalcemic episodes were mild and asymptomatic, but the majority of patients required Ca and vitamin D supplements.
Among kidney transplant patients with good allograft function, denosumab effectively increases BMD and T scores in the lumbar spine and femur neck. From baseline to post-treatment, there are no differences in serum Ca and PTH. However, mild hypocalcemia can occur following denosumab treatment, requiring monitoring and titration of Ca and vitamin D supplements.
KeywordsHypocalcemia Calcium Bone metabolism Bone mineral density Denosumab Kidney transplantation
All authors had access to the data and a role in writing the manuscript.
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