Grip strength cutpoints for youth based on a clinically relevant bone health outcome
The National Academy of Medicine recommends the handgrip for school-based surveillance of muscle strength for bone health. We established grip strength cutpoints that are linked to bone health in both US and European youth. These cutpoints could serve as a potential set of standards for surveillance and clinical applications.
The U.S. National Academy of Medicine and experts in Europe recommend the use of grip strength as a valuable and accessible musculoskeletal fitness measure due to its association with bone health. This is the first study to facilitate this recommendation by developing bone health-related grip strength cutpoints for youth based on empirical associations with the well accepted marker of bone development, i.e., height-adjusted total body less head bone mineral content (TBLH_BMC).
A purposive sample of healthy youth from Midwest USA (n = 433 youth; 14.1 ± 2.3 years; 1998–2004) and a random sample of healthy adolescents from Zaragoza, Spain (n = 355 youth; 14.9 ± 1.2 years; 2006–2007) were used to develop and test cut-points. Participants’ grip strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer while height-adjusted TBLH_BMC was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Grip strength scores were linked to TBLH_BMC using receiver operator characteristic curves, and grip strength cutpoints were tested based on the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), and predictive odds ratios. All analyses were conducted in 2016.
The AUC approximated or exceeded 0.80 for grip strength cutpoints, and the associated Se and Sp indices ranged from 53.6 to 92.5%. Sensitivity and Sp remained similar in the validation sample and those not meeting the grip strength cutpoints were five to eight times more likely to have insufficient TBLH_BMC, depending on their sex and cutpoint being considered.
Grip strength is strongly related to TBLH_BMC, and the proposed cutpoints demonstrated acceptable classification accuracy for screening healthy youth and tracking healthy bone development in community settings. The utility of the cutpoints should be further examined in more diverse populations of youth.
KeywordsPreventive medicine Sports medicine/physical fitness
The Iowa Bone Development study was supported by NIDCR (R01-DE09551 and DE12101), GCRCP (M01-RR00059), and NCRR (UL1TR000442). The HELENA Study was carried out with the financial support of the European Community Sixth RTD Framework Programme (Contract FOOD-CT-2005-007034). This study was funded by The Cooper Institute, Dallas, Texas under an individual grant attributed to Pedro F. Saint-Maurice.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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