Archives of Osteoporosis

, 13:64 | Cite as

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and influencing factors among urban and rural residents in Tianjin, China

  • Fang Fang
  • Hongyan Wei
  • Kunling Wang
  • Long Tan
  • Wanqi Zhang
  • Li Ding
  • Tong Liu
  • Zhongyan Shan
  • Mei ZhuEmail author
Original Article



There was a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among residents in Tianjin, China, especially among female residents, rural young adults, and elderly individuals. This is the first large-scale study evaluating vitamin D status in Tianjin, China, and we believe that it makes a significant contribution to the literature.


Vitamin D deficiency has been documented as a worldwide public health problem. To our knowledge, there has not been any large-scale study on vitamin D status in Tianjin, China. The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D status among Tianjin residents and to determine influencing factors.


This is a community-based study, and residents from both urban and rural areas of Tianjin were enrolled. Each participant completed a questionnaire regarding basic characteristics and lifestyle information. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were statistically analyzed according to sex, age, and region. Other factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were also explored.


A total of 1814 participants were included, with mean serum 25(OH)D level of 49.44 ± 14.9 nmol/L; only 47.63% achieved the optimal (50–125 nmol/L) 25(OH)D level. Serum 25(OH)D levels were higher among male participants than among female participants (53.44 ± 13.94 versus 46.55 ± 14.91 nmol/L, P < 0.05) and among urban participants than among rural participants (50.4 ± 16.32 versus 48.65 ± 13.58 nmol/L, P < 0.05). Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher among the age group of 40–49 years (50.7 ± 17.99 nmol/L) than among the ≥ 70 years (48.45 ± 14.49 nmol/L) or 18–29 years (47.81 ± 13.08 nmol/L) age groups.


There was a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/inadequacy among Tianjin residents, especially among female participants, rural young adults, and elderly individuals. Vitamin D supplementation is imperative for these high-risk vitamin D-deficient residents.


Vitamin D 25-Hydroxy vitamin D Vitamin D deficiency Urban and rural Chinese 



We thank Ms. Lili Fan for advice regarding statistical analysis. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81330064) and the Tianjin Science and Technology Committee Project Foundation (Grant No. 14ZCZDSY00022).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics statements

The study was approved by the ethics committee of the First Hospital of China Medical University and was performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang Fang
    • 1
  • Hongyan Wei
    • 1
  • Kunling Wang
    • 1
  • Long Tan
    • 2
  • Wanqi Zhang
    • 2
  • Li Ding
    • 1
  • Tong Liu
    • 1
  • Zhongyan Shan
    • 3
  • Mei Zhu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismTianjin Medical University General HospitalTianjinChina
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public HealthTianjin Medical UniversityTianjinChina
  3. 3.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Institute of EndocrinologyThe First Hospital of China Medical UniversityShenyangChina

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