Do 6 months of whole-body vibration training improve lean mass and bone mass acquisition of adolescent swimmers?
Swimming has little effect on bone mass. Therefore, adolescent swimmers should complement their water training with a short and intense weight-bearing training, aiming to increase their bone acquisition. Forty swimmers performed a six-month whole-body vibration (WBV) training. WBV had no effect on adolescent swimmers’ bone mass or lean mass.
The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of a whole-body vibration (WBV) intervention on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and lean mass (LM) in adolescent swimmers.
Forty male and female adolescent swimmers (VIB; mean age 14.2 ± 1.9 years) completed the WBV protocol that consisted of 15 min of training 3 days per week during a 6-month period (ranging from 3.6 to 11.6 g), while 23 swimmers (SWI; mean age 15.0 ± 2.2 years) continued with their regular swimming training alone. VIB were divided into tertiles according to training compliance in order to evaluate if any dose-effect relation existed. BMD, BMC and LM were measured longitudinally by dual energy X-ray at the whole body, lumbar-spine and hip.
No group by time interactions and no differences in change percentage were found for BMD, BMC or LM in any of the measured variables. The mean change percentage of the subtotal body (whole body minus the head) for VIB and SWI, respectively, was 2.3 vs. 2.4% for BMD, 5.7 vs 5.7% for BMC and 7.3 vs. 8.0% for lean mass. Moreover, no indication for dose-response was observed.
The proposed WBV protocol had no effect on BMD, BMC and LM in adolescent swimmers. Other types of training should be used in this population to improve both bone and lean mass.
KeywordsAdolescents Exercise Body composition Bone Swimming Whole-body vibration
- 10.Gomez-Bruton A, Gonzalez-Aguero, A, Gomez-Cabello, A, Matute-Llorente, A, Casajus, JA, Vicente-Rodriguez, G (2015) Swimming and bone: is low bone mass due to hypogravity alone or does other physical activity influence it? Osteoporos Int.Google Scholar
- 11.Gomez-Bruton A, González-Agüero A, Gómez-Cabello A, Matute-Llorente A, Casajús J, Vicente-Rodríguez G (2015) The effects of swimming training on bone tissue in adolescence. Scand J Med Sci Sports:25Google Scholar
- 13.Courteix D, Lespessailles E, Loiseau-Peres S, Obert P, Ferry B, Benhamou CL (1998) Lean tissue mass is a better predictor of bone mineral content and density than body weight in prepubertal girls. Rev Rhum (English Edition) 65:328–336Google Scholar
- 24.Julián-Almárcegui C, Huybrechts I, Gómez-Bruton A, Matute-LLorente A, González-Agüero A, Gómez-Cabello A, Moreno L, Casajús J, Vicente-Rodríguez G (2015) Validity of a food-frequency questionnaire for estimating calcium intake in adolescent swimmers. Nutr Hosp:32Google Scholar
- 28.Matute-Llorente A, Gonzalez-Aguero A, Gomez-Cabello A, Olmedillas H, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Casajus JA (2015) Effect of whole body vibration training on bone mineral density and bone quality in adolescents with Down syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 26:2449–2459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.Gomez-Cabello A, Gonzalez-Aguero A, Ara I, Casajus JA, Vicente-Rodriguez G (2012) Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on lean mass in elderly people. Nutr Hosp 28:1255–1258Google Scholar
- 40.Torvinen S, Kannus P, Sievanen H, Jarvinen TA, Pasanen M, Kontulainen S, Nenonen A, Jarvinen TL, Paakkala T, Jarvinen M, Vuori I (2003) Effect of 8-month vertical whole body vibration on bone, muscle performance, and body balance: a randomized controlled study. J Bone Miner Res 18:876–884CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar