Archives of Osteoporosis

, 8:154 | Cite as

Factors related to osteoporosis of postmenopausal women in Phayao, Thailand

  • Orathai Malairungsakul
  • Phongtape WiwatanadateEmail author
Original Article



This study was to investigate the associations between personal factors, health-related factors, history of fractures, and lifestyles and osteoporosis in the postmenopausal women.


This study was based on a retrospective case–control study design conducted in the Phayao Hospital, Phayao Province, Thailand. The 136 menopausal women aged 40 years and older were examined for bone density with dual x-ray absorptiometry. Those who had test results less than or equal to −2.5 standard deviation when compared to the maximum mean bone mineral density of young women (T score ≤ −2.5) were classified as the case group, and those who had test results more than −2.5 standard deviation when compared to the maximum mean bone mineral density of young women (T score > −2.5) were classified as the control group. Data were collected using questionnaires. Binary logistic regression with forward stepwise (likelihood ratio) model selection was used to explore the associated factors.


The factors statistically related to osteoporosis were body mass index (BMI; adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.81; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.71–0.93), age at menopause (OR = 0.88; 95 % CI, 0.79–0.99), history of fractures (OR = 10.00; 95 % CI, 2.71–36.94), family history of osteoporosis (OR = 2.66; 95 % CI, 1.04–6.77), and non-consumption of foods containing legumes, dried beans, and grains (OR = 13.84; 95 % CI, 2.08–92.11).


It is recommended that more studies should be conducted on finding the optimal BMI and on the consumption of legumes, dried beans, and grains as osteoporotic protective factors.


Body mass index Dried bean Grain Legume Osteoporosis Postmenopause 



The authors would like to thank all participants who offered excellent cooperation in providing information which was of great benefit to this study.

Conflicts of interest



  1. 1.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (1996) Research on the Menopause in the 1990s (WHO technical report series, no. 866). World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pongchaiyakul C, Taechakraichana N (2009) Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In: Pongchaikul C (ed) Osteoporosis, vol 1. Holistic Publishing, Bangkok, pp 106–122 (in Thai)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sittirak A (2005) Problems of women coming to receive services at menopause clinics of northern medical centers. Graduate thesis (Public Health Science), Reproductive Health and Family Planning, Mahidol UniversityGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2003) Prevention and management of osteoporosis (WHO technical report series, no. 921). World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bunyaratavej N (2006) Bone marker. In: Bunyaratwech N (ed) Bone forum 2006. Bangkok, Concept Medicus, pp 82–87 (in Thai)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Limpaphayom K (2000) Menopause. Bangkok, Ruan Keao Printing (in Thai)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lau EM, Lee JK, Suriwongpaisal P et al (2001) The incidence of hip fracture in four Asian countries: the Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS). Osteoporos Int 12:239–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chariyalertsak S, Suriyawongpisal P, Thakkinstain A (2001) Mortality after hip fracture in Thailand. Int Orthop 25:294–297PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Limpaphayom K (2010) Osteoporosis (in Thai). Thai Osteoporosis Foundation. Accessed 1 March 2013
  10. 10.
    Royal College of Orthopaedic Surgeons of Thailand and Thai Osteoporosis Foundation (2010) Osteoporosis: public health service guidelines. Royal College of Orthopaedic Surgeons of Thailand and Thai Osteoporosis Foundation, Bangkok (in Thai)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shea B, Wells G, Cranney A et al (2002) Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VII. Meta-analysis of calcium supplementation for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 23:552–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Paitrakul J (2009) Correlations between calcium food intake and exercise influencing bone density in postmenopausal Thai women at 1–5 Years. Graduate thesis (Nutritional Science), Mahidol UniversityGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Waiwanichikij V (2011) Herbal beverages nearby, but far from disease. Nation International Edutainment, Bangkok (in Thai)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for post menopause osteoporosis (WHO technical report series, no 843). World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pongchaiyakul C, Kotruchin P (2013) Lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density in Thai women using the Osteosys Dexxum T-bone densitometer. J Med Assoc Thai 96:898–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R Development Core Team (2008) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, http://www.R– Accessed 14 September 2008
  17. 17.
    Bunyaratavej N (2008) Bone marker. In: Bunyaratwech N (ed) Bone forum 2008. Bangkok, Concept Medicus, pp 154–195 (in Thai)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reutsupapon S, Reutsupapon L (2005) Phytoestrogen: clinical applications. Thai J Parenter Enter Nutr 16:75–83Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arjmandi BH, Smith BJ (2002) Soy isoflavones’ osteoprotective role in postmenopausal women: mechanism of action. J Nutr Biochem 13:130–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shedd-Wise KM, Alekel DL, Hofmann H et al (2011) The soy isoflavones for reducing bone loss study: 3-yr effects on pQCT bone mineral density and strength measures in postmenopausal women. J Clin Densitom 14:47–57PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wei P, Liu M, Chen Y et al (2012) Systematic review of soy isoflavone supplements on osteoporosis in women. Asian Pac J Trop Med 5:243–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shin CS, Choi HJ, Kim MJ et al (2010) Prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis in Korea: a community-based cohort study with lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density. Bone 47:378–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wajanavisit W (2008) Genetic factors of osteoporosis. In: Bunyaratwech N (ed) Bone forum 2008. Bangkok, Concept Medicus, pp 22–38Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Francucci CM, Romagni P, Camilletti A et al (2008) Effect of natural early menopause on bone mineral density. Maturitas 59:323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jomkhanngern A (2011) Miang and Lanna culture (in Thai). Accessed 1 March 2013
  26. 26.
    Sirisa-ad P (2009) Miang and Miang juice (in Thai). Chiang Mai University.;wap2. Accessed 1 March 2013

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Orathai Malairungsakul
    • 1
  • Phongtape Wiwatanadate
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand

Personalised recommendations