Archives of Osteoporosis

, Volume 7, Issue 1–2, pp 135–145 | Cite as

The effects of age, physical activity level, and body anthropometry on calcaneal speed of sound value in men

  • Kok-Yong Chin
  • Ima-Nirwana SoelaimanEmail author
  • Isa Naina Mohamed
  • Suraya Ibrahim
  • Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah
Original Article



The influences of age, physical activity, and body anthropometry on calcaneal speed of sound are different among young adults, middle-aged, and elderly men.


Quantitative ultrasound assessment of bone health status is much needed for developing countries in the screening of osteoporosis, but further studies on the factors that influence the quantitative ultrasound indices are required.


The present study examined the influence of age, lifestyle factors, and body anthropometry on calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in a group of Malaysian men of diverse age range.

Subjects and methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data from 687 eligible males were used for analysis. They answered a detailed questionnaire on their physical activity status, and their anthropometric measurements were taken. Their calcaneal SOS values were evaluated using the CM-200 sonometer (Furuno, Nishinomiya City, Japan).


Subjects with higher body mass index (BMI) had higher calcaneal SOS values albeit significant difference was only found in the elderly subjects (p < 0.05). Sedentary subjects had lower calcaneal SOS values than physically active subjects, but significant difference was only found in the middle-aged subjects (p < 0.05). Calcaneal SOS was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with age in young men; height, BMI, and physical activity score in middle-aged men; height and physical activity score in elderly men; and age and physical activity score for overall subjects. In a multivariate regression model, significant (p < 0.05) predictors for calcaneal SOS included age for young men; physical activity, BMI, body fat percentage, and height for middle-aged men; height for elderly men; and age, height, physical activity, weight, and body fat percentage for overall subjects.


Age, body anthropometry, and physical activity level have significant effects on the calcaneal SOS value in men.


Calcaneal speed of sound Physical activity Body anthropometry Age Men 



We would like to thank Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for providing financial support for this project via Arus Perdana Grant (UKM-AP-TKP-09-2009) and postgraduate research grant (FF-376-2010). We would also like to express our gratidute to Dr. Fairus bin Ahmad (Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia), Dr. Elvy Suhana Mohd. Ramli (Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia), and Dr. Amilia Aminuddin (Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) for providing their services in performing physical examination on the subjects during the screening sessions.

Financial support

This project received financial supports from Arus Perdana Grant (UKM-AP-TKP-09-2009) and postgraduate research grant (FF-376-2010) from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kok-Yong Chin
    • 1
  • Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Isa Naina Mohamed
    • 1
  • Suraya Ibrahim
    • 2
  • Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah
    • 3
  1. 1.Pharmacology Department, Faculty of MedicineUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Nutrition Science Program, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Biochemistry Department, Faculty of MedicineUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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