Chinese Medicine Shensong Yangxin Capsule (参松养心胶囊) Ameliorates Myocardial Microcirculation Dysfunction in Rabbits with Chronic Myocardial Infarction

  • Chan Jiang
  • Xi WangEmail author
  • Song Dang
  • Xin Wang
  • Qing Deng
  • Juan Hu
  • Cong-xin Huang
Original Article



To investigate the effect of Chinese compound Shensong Yangxin Capsule (参松养心 胶囊, SSYX) on myocardial microcirculation in myocardial-infarcted rabbits.


Myocardial infarction (MI) was established in rabbits by ligation of the left circumflfl ex coronary. Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into the control group, the MI group (model), and the MI treated with SSYX group (MI+SSYX) by a random number table method. After 4 weeks of administration, low-energy real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RT-MCE) was conducted to assess the microcirculatory perfusion. Immunoflfl uorescence double staining was used to detect the capillary density. The endothelial ultrastructure was observed with a transmission electron microscope. The mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelin 1 (ET-1), prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The plasmic levels of ET-1, thromboxane A2 (TXA2), nitric oxide (NO) and von willebrand factor (vWF) were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).


SSYX signififi cantly improved the myocardial blood volume, myocardial micro bubble velocity, and myocardial inflfl ow according to the examination of RT-MCE, and it visibly ameliorated the capillary endothelial structure. Furthermore, compared with the MI group, the plasma levels of TXA2, ET-1 and vWF contents signififi cantly decreased in the MI+SSYX group, and the ET-1 mRNA expression levels of myocardium in the border zone significantly decreased, and the VEGF, PGI2 and eNOS mRNA expression levels signififi cantly increased (all P<0.05).


SSYX has favorable advantages in ameliorating the impaired myocardial microcirculation following MI. The mechanisms of the effect are related to the ability of SSYX in balancing the endothelial-derived vasodilators and vasoconstrictors, and up-regulating the expression of VEGF and eNOS.


myocardial infarction microcirculation endothelium angiogenesis Shensong Yangxin Capsule 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Heinonen I, Sorop O, de Beer VJ, Duncker DJ, Merkus D. What can we learn about treating heart failure from the heart’s response to acute exercise? Focus on the coronary microcirculation. J Appl Physiol 2015;119:934–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Laughlin MH, Davis MJ, Secher NH, van Lieshout JJ, Arce-Esquivel AA, Simmons GH, et al. Peripheral circulation. Compr Physiol 2012;2:321–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ezekowitz JA, Armstrong PW, Granger CB, Theroux P, Stebbins A, Kim RJ, et al. Predicting chronic left ventricular dysfunction 90 days after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: an assessment of pexelizumab in acute myocardial infarction (APEX-AMI) substudy. Am Heart J 2010;160:272–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sara JD, Widmer RJ, Matsuzawa Y, Lennon RJ, Lerman LO, Lerman A. Prevalence of coronary microvascular dysfunction among patients with chest pain and nonobstructive coronary artery disease. JACC: Cardiovasc Interv 2015;8:1445–1453.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reffelmann T, Hale SL, Dow JS, Kloner RA. No-reflow phenomenon persists long-term after ischemia/reperfusion in the rat and predicts infarct expansion. Circulation 2003;108:2911–2917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fischer-Rasokat U, Spyridopoulos I, Walter J, Honold J, Zeiher AM, Fichtlscherer S. Microvascular dysfunction and pulse wave refl ection characterize different vascular pathologies in patients at cardiovascular risk. Vasa 2012;41:192–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Herrmann J, Kaski JC, Lerman A. Coronary microvascular dysfunction in the clinical setting: from mystery to reality. Eur Heart J 2012;33:2771–2782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    van de Hoef TP, Bax M, Meuwissen M, Damman P, Delewi R, de Winter RJ, et al. Impact of coronary microvascular function on long-term cardiac mortality in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2013;6:207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Herrmann J, Kaski JC, Lerman A. Coronary microvascular dysfunction in the clinical setting: from mystery to reality. Eur Heart J 2012;33:2771–2782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu Y, Li N, Jia Z, Lu F, Pu J. Chinese medicine Shensong Yangxin is effective for patients with bradycardia: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:605714.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu M, Zhao S, Wang Y, Liu T, Li S, Wang H, et al. Identifi cation of multiple constituents in Chinese medicinal prescription Shensong Yangxin Capsule by ultra-fast liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr Sci 2015;53:240–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu Y. Construction of the vessel-collateral theory and its guidance for prevention and treatment of vasculopathy. Front Med 2011;5:118–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu M, Li S, Zhao S, Wang H, Wang H, Tu P. Studies on excretion kinetics of ten constituents in rat urine after oral administration of Shensong Yangxin Capsule by UPLC-MS/ MS. Biomed Chromatogr 2014;28:525–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang J, Li J, Feng B. Shensong Yangxin Capsule combined with antiarrhythmic drugs, a new integrative medicine therapy, for the treatment of frequent premature ventricular contractions (FPVC): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:976713.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Qu Z, Xu H, Tian Y, Jiang X. Atorvastatin improves microenvironment to enhance the beneficial effects of BMSCs therapy in a rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction. Cell Physiol Biochem 2013;32:380–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li DY, Hao J, Xia Y, Zhang H, Xu TD, Wang XP, et al. Clinical usefulness of low-dose dobutamine stress realtime myocardial contrast echocardiography for detection of viable myocardium. J Clin Ultrasound 2012;40:272–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Falcao SN, Rochitte CE, Junior WM, Quaglia L, Lemos PA, Sbano JC, et al. Incremental value of perfusion over wallmotion abnormalities with the use of dobutamine-atropine stress myocardial contrast echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting coronary artery disease. Echocardiography 2013;30:45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hamirani YS, Wong A, Kramer CM, Salerno M. Effect of microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial hemorrhage by CMR on LV remodeling and outcomes after myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2014;7:940–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cicco G, Cicco S. The influence of oxygen supply, hemorheology and microcirculation in the heart and vascular systems. Adv Exp Med Biol 2010;662:33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Loiola RA, Torres TC, Aburaya CM, Landgraf MA, Landgraf RG, Bosco PJ, et al. Generation and characterization of a spontaneously immortalized endothelial cell line from mice microcirculation. Exp Cell Res 2013;319:1102–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith JB, Araki H, Lefer AM. Thromboxane A2, prostacyclin and aspirin: effects on vascular tone and platelet aggregation. Circulation 1980;62:19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Couto GK, Britto LR, Mill JG, Rossoni LV. Enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability in coronary arteries prevents the onset of heart failure in rats with myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2015;86:110–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thengchaisri N, Hein TW, Ren Y, Kuo L. Endothelin-1 impairs coronary arteriolar dilation: Role of p38 kinasemediated superoxide production from NADPH oxidase. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2015;86:75–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DeFilippis AP, Oloyede OS, Andrikopoulou E, Saenger AK, Palachuvattil JM, Fasoro YA, et al. Thromboxane A(2) generation, in the absence of platelet COX-1 activity, in patients with and without atherothrombotic myocardial infarction. Circ J 2013;77:2786–2792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Duncker DJ, Merkus D. Regulation of coronary blood fl ow. Effect of coronary artery stenosis. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 2004;97:1244–1250.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tousoulis D, Simopoulou C, Papageorgiou N, Oikonomou E, Hatzis G, Siasos G, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in conduit arteries and in microcirculation. Novel therapeutic approaches. Pharmacol Ther 2014;144:253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Scridon A, Girerd N, Rugeri L, Nonin-Babary E, Chevalier P. Progressive endothelial damage revealed by multilevel von Willebrand factor plasma concentrations in atrial fi brillation patients. Europace 2013;15:1562–1566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dashkevich A, Hagl C, Beyersdorf F, Nykanen AI, Lemstrom KB. VEGF Pathways in the Lymphatics of Healthy and Diseased Heart. Microcirculation 2016;23:5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shibuya M, Claesson-Welsh L. Signal transduction by VEGF receptors in regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Exp Cell Res 2006;312:549–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pan WK, Li P, Guo ZT, Huang Q, Gao Y. Propranolol induces regression of hemangioma cells via the downregulation of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VEGF pathway. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:1414–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Association of the Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chan Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xi Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Song Dang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xin Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qing Deng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Juan Hu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cong-xin Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of CardiologyRenmin Hospital of Wuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Research Institute of Wuhan UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations