Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 45–50 | Cite as

Protective Effect of Zengye Decoction (增液汤) on Submandibular Glands in Nonobese Diabetic Mice

  • Cheng-yin Li
  • Su-ling Wu
  • Li-xia Sun
  • Ting-ting Yan
  • Yue WangEmail author
Original Article



To investigate the protective effect of Zengye Decoction (增液汤, ZYD) on the submandibular glands (SMGs) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice.


Twenty-seven female NOD mice were randomly equally divided into 3 groups: the model group, the hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group, and the ZYD group. Nine C57/B6 mice served as the normal group. After 1-week acclimation, the HCQ and ZYD groups were intragastrically administered with HCQ and ZYD, respectively, and the normal and model groups were administered with normal saline. Changes in the salivary flow rate were observed. Mice from all 4 groups were sacrificed at the age of 20 weeks. The serum and SMGs were collected. Serum cytokines gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histological changes in the submandibular glands were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-10 and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the submandibular glands were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction.


Compared with the model group, the salivary flow of the ZYD group significantly increased (P<0.05), the extent of the histological changes was ameliorated (P<0.05), and the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance was remedied (P<0.05). In the ZYD-treated mice, the VIP mRNA was up-regulated (P<0.05).


ZYD is beneficial in protecting structure and function of SMGs in NOD mice. The mechanism may be associated with the correction of the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance, and with the prevention of a progressive decline of the VIP level.


Sjögren’s syndrome Th1/Th2 vasoactive intestinal peptide Zengye Decoction Chinese medicine 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zhao JS, Tong WD. Pathophysiology of slow transit constipation. Chin J Gastrointest Surg (Chin) 2012;15:758–760.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cheng J. Theoretical and experimental research on the point of the correlation between lung and large intestine in fluids metabolism [dissertation]. Wuhan: Hubei University of Chinese Medicine; 2010.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hauk V, Calafat M, Larocca L, Fraccaroli L, Grasso E, Ramhorst R, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide/vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor relative expression in salivary glands as one endogenous modulator of acinar cell apoptosis in a murine model of Sjögren’s syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol 2011;166:309–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lodde BM, Mineshiba F, Wang J, Cotrim AP, Afione S, Tak PP, et al. Effect of human vasoactive intestinal peptide gene transfer in a murine model of Sjögren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 2006;65:195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sun LY, Ma YX, Li WW, Wu XD, Xiao HB, Hu XY, et al. The effect of Zengye Decoction on Th1 cytokines in Sjögren’s syndrome model mice. Acta Chin Med Pharmacol (Chin) 2010;38(6):42–44.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sasaki K, Duan J, Murohara T, Ikeda H, Shintani S, Shimada T, et al. Rescue of hypercholesterolemia-related impairment of angiogenesis by oral folate supplementation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:364–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bojunga J, Kusterer K, Bacher M, Kurek R, Usadel KH, Renneberg H. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and development of type-1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Cytokine 2003;21:179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chisholm DM, Mason DK. Labial salivary gland biopsy in Sjögren’s disease. J Clin Pathol 1968;21:656–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kok MR, Yamano S, Lodde BM, Wang J, Couwenhoven RI, Yakar S, et al. Local adeno-associated virus-mediated interleukin 10 gene transfer has disease-modifying effects in a murine model of Sjögren’s syndrome. Hum Gene Ther 2003;14:1605–1618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thomas PB, Samant DM, Selvam S, Wei RH, Wang Y, Stevenson D, et al. Adeno-associated virus-mediated IL-10 gene transfer suppresses lacrimal gland immunopathology in a rabbit model of autoimmune dacryoadenitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51:5137–5144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brennan MT, Fox PC. Cytokine mRNA expression in the labial salivary glands of healthy volunteers. Oral Dis 2000;6:222–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kohriyama K, Katayama Y. Disproportion of helper T cell subsets in peripheral blood of patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Autoimmunity 2000;32:67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fox RI, Kang HI, Ando D, Abrams J, Pisa E. Cytokine mRNA expression in salivary gland biopsies of Sjögren’s syndrome. J Immunol 1994;152:5532–5539.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    van Woerkom JM, Kruize AA, Wenting-Van WM, Knol E, Bihari IC, Jacobs J W, et al. Salivary gland and peripheral blood T helper 1 and 2 cell activity in Sjögren’s syndrome compared with non-Sjogren’s sicca syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64:1474–1479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu G L, Li TY, Fan YS, Yu GY, Chen J. Effect of Chinese herbal medicine for nourishing yin, supplementing qi, and activating blood on the Th1/Th2 immune balance in peripheral blood in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Chin J Integr Med 2013;19:696–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Szema AM, Hamidi SA, Golightly MG, Rueb TP, Chen JJ. VIP regulates the development and proliferation of treg in vivo in spleen. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2011;7:19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Luo Q, Wang Y, Feng D, Xu Y, Xu L. Vasoactive intestinal peptide attenuates concanavalin A-mediated liver injury. Eur J Pharmacol 2009;607:226–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Larocca L, Calafat M, Roca V, Franchi A M, Leiros C P. VIP limits LPS-induced nitric oxide production through IL-10 in NOD mice macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol 2007;7:1343–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Association of the Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheng-yin Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Su-ling Wu
    • 3
  • Li-xia Sun
    • 1
  • Ting-ting Yan
    • 4
  • Yue Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.The First College of Clinical MedicineNanjing University of Chinese MedicineNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of RheumatologyChongqing Hospital of Traditional Chinese MedicineChongqingChina
  3. 3.Nanjing Hospital of Traditional Chinese MedicineNanjingChina
  4. 4.Institute for Ancient Texts of Traditional Chinese MedicineNanjing University of Chinese MedicineNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations