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LO SCALPELLO-OTODI Educational

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 309–316 | Cite as

Le fratture articolari ed extra-articolari del ginocchio

  • Gino RoccaEmail author
  • Giuseppe Colasanto
  • Angela De Venuto
  • Alice Del Sal
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Articular and extra-articular knee fractures

Abstract

Joint fractures of the knee include epiphyseal detachments of the distal femur and proximal tibia (types 3 and 4 according to Salter-Harris). Extra-articular fractures include: avulsion of the tibial spines, detachment of the anterior tuberosity and patellar fractures. Fractures involving the distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphysis are relatively infrequent but may lead to long-term complications owing to the formation of post-traumatic bone bridges. Unless the fracture is composed, surgical treatment is always indicated. Avulsion fractures of the tibial spines occur as a result of a chondro-epiphyseal detachment of the insertion of the cruciate ligaments (predominantly the anterior one). They are infrequent injuries (3 per 100,000 cases per year, 2% of all knee injuries). Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment prevent unfortunate outcomes. Adolescent tibial tubercle fractures are uncommon, high-energy injuries sometimes combined with patellar tendon rupture; they represent a frequently missed diagnosis. Open reduction/internal fixation is generally required. Patellar fractures are caused by direct trauma (primary osseous fractures) or by an eccentric load during extension of the knee (sleeve and avulsion fractures). Most fractures require open reduction/internal fixation. The complication rate is low but late reconstruction of missed injuries may result in an extensor deficit.

Notes

Conflitto di interesse

Gli autori Gino Rocca, Giuseppe Colasanto, Angela De Venuto e Alice Del Sal dichiarano di non aver alcun conflitto di interesse.

Consenso informato e conformità agli standard etici

Tutte le procedure descritte nello studio e che hanno coinvolto esseri umani sono state attuate in conformità alle norme etiche stabilite dalla dichiarazione di Helsinki del 1975 e successive modifiche. Il consenso informato è stato ottenuto da tutti i pazienti inclusi nello studio.

Human and Animal Rights

L’articolo non contiene alcuno studio eseguito su esseri umani e su animali da parte degli autori.

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Copyright information

© Società Italiana Ortopedici Traumatologi Ospedalieri d’Italia 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gino Rocca
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giuseppe Colasanto
    • 1
  • Angela De Venuto
    • 1
  • Alice Del Sal
    • 1
  1. 1.SCDO Ortopedia e Traumatologia PediatricaAzienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria “Maggiore della carità”NovaraItalia

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