Geochemistry of subsurface Late Quaternary ironstones in Rajshahi and Bogra Districts, Bangladesh: implications for genetic and depositional conditions

  • Md. Sazzadur Rahman
  • Ismail HossainEmail author
  • Pradip Kumar Biswas
  • Md. Abdur Rahim
  • A. S. M. Mehedi Hasan
  • Md. Ibrahim Adham
Original Article


The present study deals with the geochemistry of Late Quaternary ironstones in the subsurface in Rajshahi and Bogra districts, Bangladesh with the lithological study of the boreholes sediments. Major lithofacies of the studied boreholes are clay, silty clay, sandy clay, fine to coarse grained sand, gravels and sands with (fragmentary) ironstones. The ironstones contain major oxides, Fe2O3* (* total Fe) (avg. 66.6 wt%), SiO2 (avg. 15.3 wt%), Al2O3 (avg. 4.0 wt%), MnO (avg. 7.7 wt%), and CaO (avg. 3.4 wt%). These geochemical data imply that the higher percentage of Fe2O3* along with Al2O3 and MnO indicate the ironstone as goethite and siderite, which is also validated by XRD data. A comparatively higher percentage of SiO2 indicates the presence of relative amounts of clastic quartz and manganese-rich silicate or clay in these rocks. These ironstones also have significant amounts of MnO (avg. 7.7 wt%) suggesting their depositional environments under oxygenated condition. Chemical data of these ironstones suggest that the source rock suffered deep chemical weathering and iron was mostly carried in association with the clay fraction and organic matter. Iron concretion was mostly formed by bacterial build up in swamps and marshes, and was subsequently embedded in clayey mud. Within the coastal environments, the water table fluctuates and goethite and siderite with mud and quartz became dry and compacted to form ironstone.


Ironstone Geochemistry Goethite Siderite Bangladesh 



The authors woud like to thank the Director, Institute of Mining, Mineralogy and Metallurgy (IMMM), Joypurhat, Bangladesh for his cordial support to us carrying out our geochemical and mineralogical analyses using XRF and XRD in the IMMM laboratory. The authors are grateful to Prof. S. Kabir for his effective proofreading of the manuscript and special thanks to M.A. Rahman for his kind support. We are also grateful to F.H. Tobia and an anonymous reviewer for their constructive reviews and comments.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (JPEG 1359 kb)


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Copyright information

© Science Press and Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology and MiningUniversity of RajshahiRajshahiBangladesh
  2. 2.Institutes of Mining, Mineralogy and Metallurgy (IMMM)BCSIRJoypurhatBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of Disaster Resilience and EngineeringPatuakhali Science and Technology UniversityDumki, PatuakhaliBangladesh

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