Geology and geochemical evaluation of Taftan Volcano, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, southeast of Iran

  • H. Biabangard
  • A. Moradian


At a glance of its stratighraphy, the Taftan Volcano can be classified as three groups: pre-, syn-and post-volcanic deposits. The pre-volcanic deposits consist mostly of flysch facies and colored mélange complex. The syn-volcanic deposits are mainly the product of the Taftan Volcano which is mostly composed of pyroclastic and lava flows from the main body of this volcano. The post-volcanic deposits are mostly epiclastic and reworked materials from the Taftan Volcano due to its erosion and weathering. Major and trace elements, and Sr/Rb isotopic compositions determined on whole-rock samples from the Taftan Volcano showed that the volcano was formed at the continental margin. The whole-rock isotopic composition of the Taftan Volcano showed a feature of strong enrichment with 87Sr/86Sr=0.705326–0.705921. Geochronological samples of the Taftan Volcano determined by the 40K/40Ar method gave an age range of 6.95±0.72 to 0.71±0.03 Ma. The rare-earth element patterns are characterized by high LREE and nearly strongly linear patterns for MREE to HREE, suggesting that distinctive minerals such as olivine and pyroxene crystallized in the early magmatic stage and then were involved in reaction between the lower crust and residual magma. The integrated isotope and trace element systematics and tectonic structure beneath the Taftan Volcano suggested the lower-crust assimilation by the primary magma. The primary magma had generated from a heterogeneous mantle source and a secondary petrogenetical process. This magma could have been affected by the subduction of the Oman Sea underneath the continental Eurasia plate.

Key words

Taftan Volcano volcanic deposit isotopic composition geochronology heterogeneous mantle lower-crust assimilation 


  1. Berberian F. and Berberian M. (1981) Tectonic-plutonic episodes in Iran, in continental deformation on the Iranian plateau (A contribution to the seismotectonics of Iran, part IV) [R]. G.S.I. Rep. 52, 565–593.Google Scholar
  2. Davidson J.P., Hassanzadeh J., Berzins R., Pandamouz A., Stockli D.F., and Bashukooh B. (2004) The geology of Damavand volcano, Alborz Mountains, Nourtheastern Iran [J]. Geology Society of American Bull. 116, 16–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dostal J. and Zerbin M. (1978) Geochemistry of the sabalan volcano (Northeastern Iran) [J]. Chemical Geology. 22, 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gansser A. (1971) The Taftan Volcano (SE Iran) [J]. Eclogae, Geol, Helve. 64, 319–334.Google Scholar
  5. Ghazban F. (2004) Alteration and geochemistry of mount Taftan geothermal prospect southeaster Iran [J]. Iranian. Int. J. Sci. 1, 43–62.Google Scholar
  6. Glennie K.W., Boeuf M.G.A., Hugues Clark M.W.M., Dystuart M., Pilaar W.F.H., and Reinhardt B.M. (1973) Late Cretaceous nape in Oman Mountains and their geologic education bull [J]. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. 57, 5–27.Google Scholar
  7. Hildreth W. and Moorbath S. (1988) Crust contributions to arc magmatism in the Southern Chile [J]. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 98, 455–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Irvine N. and Bargar W.R.A. (1971) Agued to chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks [J]. Can. J. Earth. Sci. 8, 523–548.Google Scholar
  9. Itaya T., Nagao K., Inouc K., Honjou Y., Okada T., and Ogata A. (1991) Argon isotope analysis by a newly developed mass spectrometer system for K-Ar dating [J]. Mineralogy Socity of Journal. 15, 203–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jakes P. and White A.J.R. (1972) K/Rb ratios of rocks from island arcs [J]. Geochemical et Cosmochimica Acta. 34, 846–856.Google Scholar
  11. Kimia Gholame G. and Shine N. (1999) Report of Geophysical Exploration in Kharestan Area [R]. Iranian. Report. 51, 1–38.Google Scholar
  12. Le Bas M.J., Le Maitre R.W., and Streckeisen Zanehin B. (1986) A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total Alkali-Silica content [J]. J. Petrol. 27, 745–750.Google Scholar
  13. Mahood G.A. and Hilderth E.W. (1983) Large partion coefficient for trace element in high-silica rhyolite [J]. Geochemical et Cosmochimica Acta. 47, 11–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marcy R.C., Defant M.J., and Joron J.L. (1992) Metasomatism of arc mantel inferred from trace element in Phillipine xenoliths [J]. Nature. 360, 661–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McDonough W.F., Sun S., Ring Wood A.E., Jagoutze E., and Hof Mann A.W. (1991) K, Rb and Cs in the Earth and Moon and the evolution of the earths mantle [J]. Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta (Rosstylor symposium volume).Google Scholar
  16. Mcnutt M.K., Diament M., and Kogan M.G. (1988) Variations of elastic plate thickness at continental thrust [J]. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8825–8838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mehdezadeh H., Liotard J.M., and Dautria J.M. (2002) Geochemical characteristics of an intercontinental shoshonitic association: The example of the Damavand Volcano, Iran [J]. Geosciences. 334, 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Michard A., Goffe B., Saddiqui O., Oberhansh R., and wendt A.S. (1994) Late Cretaceous exhumation of the Oman Blue schist and ecologists: A two stages extensional Mechanism [J]. Terra Nova. 6, 404–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Miller D.M., Goldstein S.L., and Langmuir G. (1994) Cerium/lead and lead isotopes magmas and enrichment of lead in the continents [J]. Nature. 368, 514–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Miyazaki T. and Shuto K. (1998) Sr and Nd isotopic ratios of twelve GSJ rock reference samples [J]. Geochem. J. 32, 345–350.Google Scholar
  21. Moinvazire H. (1998) An Introduction of Magmatism of Iran [M]. Tehran University Press, Tehran, 420, 305–315.Google Scholar
  22. Nagao K. and Itaya T. (1988) K-Ar age determination [J]. Memoin of Socity of Japan. 29, 5–21 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  23. Nagao K., Nishido H., Itaya T., and Ogata K. (1984) An age determination by K-Ar method [J]. Bultten of the Hirvun Research Institute, Okayama University of Scince. 9, 19–38 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  24. Nicolas A. (1988) Structural characteristics of ophiolites and dynamics of oceanic lithosphere petrology and structural geology [J]. Tectonophysics. 4, 151.Google Scholar
  25. Pearce J.A. (1982) Trace element characteristics of lavas from destructive plate boundaries. In Orogenic Andesites and Related Rock (ed. Throop R.S.) [M]. pp.525–548. Wiely, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Pearce J.A. (1983) The role of sub-continental lithosphere in magma genesis at destructive plate margins. In Continental Basalt and Mantle Xenoliths (eds. Tlawlcesworth C.J. and Norry M.J.) [M]. Shiva Publicshim Limited, Cheshire.Google Scholar
  27. Pearce J.A. and Peate D.W. (1995) Tectonic implications of the composition of volcanic arc magmas [J]. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 23, 251–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pearce J.A., Bender J.F., Delong S.E., Kidd W.S.F., Low P.J., Guner Y., Saroglu F., Yilmaz Y., Moorbath S., and Mitchell J.J. (1990) Genesis of collision volcanism in eastern Anatolia turkey’s [J]. Volcano. Geoth. Res. 44, 189–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rauvant P.A.L., Yahyaey A., Bayer R., and Lesquer A. (1993) Repose isostatique en Oman, C.R. [J]. Acad. Sci. Paris. 317, 463–470.Google Scholar
  30. Rutherford M.J. and Gill P.M. (1993) Magma ascent rates from amphiboles breakdown: An experimental study applied to the 1980–1986. Mt. St. Helens Eruption. [J]. Journal of Geophysics Research. 98, 1957–1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schiano P., Clocchiatti R., Shimizu N., Maury R.C., Jochum K.P., and Hofman A.W. (1995) Hydrous silica rich melts in the sub-arc mantle and third relationship with erupted arc lavas [J]. Nature. 377, 595–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stocklin J. (1968) Structural history and tectonic of Iran: A review [J]. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. 52, 1229–1258.Google Scholar
  33. Thrilwall N.F., Smith T.E., Grahaqm A.M., Theodore N., Hollings P., Davidson D.P., and Arculus R.D. (1994) High field strength element anomalies in arc lavas source or process [J]. Petro. 35, 819–838.Google Scholar
  34. Walker J.A., Moulds T.N., and Zentilli Meigenson M.D. (1991) Special and temporal variations in volcanic of the central volcanic zone (26–28). In Andean Magmatism and Its Tectonic Setting (eds. Harmon R.S.and Repeal C.W.) [M]. pp.139–155. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Google Scholar
  35. Zarcan Minerals I.N.C. June Company (2000) Balouchestan Exploration Project on Exploration and Base Line Data Studies for Selected Areas to Be Retained (eds. Baker E. and Reimchen T.H.F.) [M]. Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyShahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran

Personalised recommendations