Field and CFD Study of Fuel Distribution in Pulverized Fuel (PF) Boilers

  • Szymon CiukajEmail author
  • Bartłomiej Hernik


The article presents both field and CFD results of a new concept of a mechanical pulverized fuel (PF) distributor. The goal of the study was to improve the pulverized coal-air mixture separation in PF boilers where the fuel preparation and feeding system was operated in a combined coal and biomass grinding conditions. The numerical analysis was preceded after a field study, where measurements were carried out in a pulverized coal-fired (PC) boiler equipped with a technology of NOx reduction by means of primary methods. Proper distribution of a pulverized coal-air mixture to the individual burners is one of the fundamental tasks of the combustion systems where the primary methods are implemented to control the NOx emission. Problems maintaining the proper distribution of fuel to the burners related primarily to the boilers where the coal and biomass co-grinding is used. Changing the load of coal-mills and fuel type at the same time (i.e., different types of biomass) could result in less effective separation of pulverized fuel particles in PF distributors. Selection of an appropriate construction of a distributor will allow the better control of the combustion process which results in decreased NOx emission while keeping the proper combustion efficiency, i.e., less unburned carbon (UBC) in the fly ash. The results of the field measurements made it possible to create a CFD distribution base model, which was used for the analysis of a new splitter construction to be used in a PF distributor. Subsequent analysis of the numerical splitter enables precise analysis of its construction, including the efficiency of separation and the prediction of conveying of the coal and biomass particles.


pulverized fuel (PF) boiler NOx reduction biomass co-firing fuel distribution 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Zhou Z., Liu X., Zhao B., Chen Z., Shao H., Wang L., Xu M., Effects of existing energy saving and air pollution control devices on mercury removal in coal-fired power plants. Fuel Processing Technology, 2015, 131: 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Andrić I., Jamali-Zghal N., Santarelli M., Lacarriere B., Le Corre O., Environmental performance assessment of retrofitting existing coal fired power plants to co-firing with biomass: carbon footprint and energy approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2015, 103: 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Bhuiyan A.A., Naser J., CFD modelling of co-firing of biomass with coal under oxy-fuel combustion in a large scale power plant. Fuel, 2015, 159: 150–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Czakiert T., Bis Z., Muskala W., Nowak W., Fuel conversion from oxy-fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Fuel Processing Technology, 2006, 87: 531–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Ciukaj S., Influence of combined coal and biomass co-firing in pulverized fuel boilers (Wpływ współspalania biomasy na pracę kotłów pyłowych - in polish). PhD thesis. Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland, 2012.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Wei Z., Li X., Xu L., Cheng Y., Comparative study of computational intelligence approaches for NOx reduction of coal-fired boiler. Energy, 2013, 55: 683–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Rusinowski H., Stanek W., Hybrid model of steam boiler. Energy, 2010, 35: 1107–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Lv Y., Liu J., Yang T., Zeng D., A novel least squares support vector machine ensemble model for NOx emission prediction of a coal-fired boiler. Energy, 2013, 55: 319–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Pronobis M., Modernizacja kotłów energetycznych [Modernisation of power boilers], WNT, Warsaw, Poland, 2002.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Ferrín J.L., Saavedra L., Distribution of the coal flow in the mill-duct system of the As Pontes Power Plant using CFD modeling. Fuel Processing Technology, 2013, 106: 84–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Wang Q., Melaaen M.C., De Silva S.R., Investigation and simulation of a cross-flow air classifier. Powder Technology, 2001, 120: 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Johansson R., Evertsson M., CFD simulation of a gravitational air classifier. Minerals Engineering, 2012, 33: 20–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Vuthaluru H.B., Pareek V.K., Vuthaluru R., Multiphase flow simulation of a simplified coal pulveriser. Fuel Processing Technology, 2005, 86: 1195–1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Sommerfeld M., Huber N., Experimental analysis and modelling of particle-wall collisions. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 1999, 25: 1457–1489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Afolabi L., Aroussi A., Mat Isa N., Numerical modelling of the carrier gas phase in a laboratory-scale coal classifier model. Fuel Processing Technology, 2011, 92: 556–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Wallace M.S., Peters J.S., et al., CFD based erosion modelling of multi-orifice choke valve. Proceedings of 2000 ASME Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Boston, MA, 2000, 2: 945–958.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Shirazi S.A., Shadley J.R., Mclaury B.S., A procedure to predict solid particle erosion in elbows and tees. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 1995, 117: 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Edwards J.K., McLaury B.S., Shirazi S.A., Supplementing a CFD code with erosion prediction capabilities. In Proceedings of ASME FEDSM’98: ASME 1998 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, vol. 245, Washington D.C. 1998.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Sciubba E., Zeoli N., A study of sootblower erosion in waste-incinerating heat boilers. Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 2007, 129: 50–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Vuthaluru H.B., Pareek V.K., Vuthaluru R., Multiphase flow simulation of a simplified coal pulveriser. Fuel Processing Technology, 2005, 86: 1195–1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Kozić M., Ristić S., Puharić M., Linić S., CFD analysis of the influence of centrifugal separator geometry modification on the pulverized coal distribution at the burners. Transactions of FAMENA, 2014, 38: 25–36.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Hernik B., Pronobis M., Wejkowski R., Wojnar W.: Experimental verification of a CFD model intended for the determination of restitution coefficients used in erosion modelling. E3S Web of Conference, 2017, 13: article number 05001. ( Scholar
  23. [23]
    Hernik B., Wejkowski R., Ciukaj Sz., Comparison of accuracy of the naphthalene analogy method and CFD modelling in determining the convective heat transfer coefficient in combined—diagonally finned and plain tube bank. Papers of the 7th International Conference, Economical Energy Production, Transfer, and Consumption. Acta Mechanica Slovaca, 2007, 11(4-D): 297–302.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Picart A., Berlemont A., Gouesbet G., Modelling and predicting turbulence fields and the dispersion of discrete particles transported by turbulent flows. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 1986, 12: 237–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Shih T., Liou W.W., Shabbir A., A new k-ε eddy viscosity model for high Reynolds number turbulent flows—model development and validation. Computers and Fluids, 1995, 24: 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Hernik B., Investigations for decreasing of risk of corrosion-erosion in boilers (Badania dla zmniejszenia zagrożenia korozyjno-erozyjnego kotłów energetycznych-in polish). PhD thesis. Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Power Engineering and TurbomachinerySilesian University of Technology (SUT)GliwicePoland

Personalised recommendations