Study on Flow Characteristics of a Turbulent Boundary Layer and Vortex Structure of High Pressure Guide Vanes in SCO2 Turbines

  • Wanlong Han
  • Yueming Wang
  • Zhenping Feng
  • Hongzhi LiEmail author
  • Mingyu YaoEmail author
  • Yifan Zhang


In order to further understand the aerothermodynamic performance and flow loss mechanism of SCO2 turbines, RANS equations and an SST Turbulence Model were chosen for a numerical study on the secondary flow and vortex structure of cascades using the commercial software CFX. The dimensionless vorticity analysis method was used to study the flow characteristics of the logarithmic layer and viscous sublayer in high pressure guide vane cascades. The new vortex structure and formation mechanism of the vortices were given and analyzed. Simulation results indicated that during the motion of the boundary layer in the cascades, the logarithmic layer and viscous sublayer obtain the different rotational direction vorticity, respectively. The endwall logarithmic layer and pressure side leg of the horseshoe votex gradually develop into the passage vortex, with the endwall viscous sublayer gradually developing into the corner viscous sublayer vortex II and the endwall viscous sublayer vortex I. The endwall viscous sublayer that rolled by the passage vortex is encountered with the upstream-side and radial boundary layer of the vane at the suction separation line, forming the suction separation line vortex beside the passage vortex. A pair of radial transition vortices are formed between the wake and the main stream.


SCO2 turbine vortex structure dimensionless vorticity logarithmic layer viscous sublayer secondary flow 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This study is financially supported by the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2017M613294XB), National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFB1501004), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51406166, 51706181 and 51806172), the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2017BSHQYXMZZ08), Key Programs of China Huaneng Group (Grant No. HNKJ15-H07), R&D Foundation of TPRI (Grant No.ZD-18-TYK13) and Young Talent Programs of Chinese Society for Electrical Engineering (Grant No. JLB-2016-70).


  1. [1]
    Squire H., Winter K., The secondary flow in cascade of airfoils in a nonuniform stream. Journal of Aeronautical Sciences, 1951, 18(4): 271–277.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Herzig H.Z., Hansen A.G., Costello G.R., Visualization study of secondary flow in cascades. NACA Technical Report 1163, 1954, pp.: 147–197. (website: Scholar
  3. [3]
    Hawthorne W.R., Armstrong W.D., Rotational flow through cascades II. The circulation about the cascade. Quarterly Journal of Mechanics & Applied Mathematics, 1955, 8(3): 280–292.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Hawthorne W.R., Rotational flow through cascades part I. The components of vorticity. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 1955, 8(3): 266–279.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Langston L.S., Nice M.L., Hooper R.M., Threedimensional flow within a turbine cascade passage. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power, 1977, 99(1): 21–28.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Langston L.S., Crossflows in a turbine cascade passage. ASME Journal of Engineering Power, 1980, 102(4): 866–874.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Sharma O.P., Butler T.L., Predictions of end wall losses and secondary flows in axial flow turbine cascades. Journal of Turbomachinery, 1987, 109: 229–236.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Goldstein R.J., Spores R.A., Turbulent transport on the end wall in the region between adjacent turbine blades. Journal of Heat Transfer, 1998, 110: 862–896.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Moon Y.J., Koh S.R., Counter-rotation streamwise vortex formation in the turbine cascade with endwall fence. Computers & Fluids, 2001, 30(4): 473–490.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Sauer H., MüLler R., Vogeler K., Reduction of secondary flow losses in turbine cascades by leading edge modifications at the endwall. Journal of Turbomachinery, 2001, 123(2): 207–213.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Graziani R.A., Blair M.F., Taylor J.R., et al., An experimental study of endwall and airfoil surface heat transfer in a large scale turbine blade cascade. Journal of Engineering for Power, 1980, 102(2): 257–267.Google Scholar
  12. [11a]
    Takeishi K., Matsuura M., Aoki S., Sato T., An experimental study of heat transfer and film cooling on low aspect ratio turbine nozzles. ASME Turbo Expo: International Gas Turbine & Aeroengine Congress & Exposition, 1989, pp.: 1–9. (DOI: 10.1115/89-GT-187)Google Scholar
  13. [12]
    Lindner E., Numerical and experimental analysis of secondary flow in modern state-of-the-art low pressure guide vane rows. ASME Turbo Expo: International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, 1995, pp.:1-13. (DOI:10.1115/95-GT-189)Google Scholar
  14. [13]
    Yamamoto A., Kaba K., Matsunuma T., Measurement and visualization of three-dimensional flows in a linear turbine cascade. ASME Turbo Expo: International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, 1995, pp.:1-9. (DOI:10.1115/95-GT-341)Google Scholar
  15. [14]
    Wang H.P., Olson S.J., Goldstein R.J., Eckert E.R.G., Flow visualization in a linear turbine cascade of high performance turbine blades. ASME Turbo Expo: Gas Turbine India Conference. 1995, pp.: 1–8. (DOI: 10.1115/95-GT-007)Google Scholar
  16. [15]
    Denton J.D., Loss mechanisms in turbomachines. ASME 1993 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, 1993, pp. 1–40. (DOI: 10.1115/93-GT-435)Google Scholar
  17. [16]
    Chaluvadi V.S.P., Kalfas A.I., Hodson H.P., et al., Blade row interaction in a high pressure steam turbine. Transaction of the ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, 2003, 125(4): 892–901.Google Scholar
  18. [17]
    Han W., Huang H., Huo J., Wang Z., An effect of blade positive curving on the flow in a blade tip clearance. Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 1997, 18(4): 429–434.Google Scholar
  19. [18]
    Han W., Zhong J., Huang H., Wang Z., Topological and vortex structure the flow field of the positively curved cascade with the tip clearance. Acta Aerodynamica Sinica, 1999, 17(02): 141–149. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. [19]
    Chang J.Z., Feng Z.P., Shen Z.D., Experimental study on secondary flow and vortex structure in two kinds of turbine cascades with flow visualization techniques. Shanghai Turbine, 1999, (3): 14–18. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. [20]
    Dossena V., Perdichizzi A., Savini M., The influence of endwall contouring on the performance of a turbine nozzle guide vane. Journal of Turbomachinery, 1998, 121(2): 200–208.Google Scholar
  22. [21]
    Burd S.W., Simon T.W., Flow measurements in a nozzle guide vane passage with a low aspect ratio and endwall contouring. Journal of Turbomachinery, 2000, 122(4): 659–670.Google Scholar
  23. [22]
    Qi M., Feng Z., Study on tip clearance flow of turbine blade-endwall secondary flow structure. Journal of Xian Jiaotong University, 2005, 39(5): 445–449.Google Scholar
  24. [23]
    Shih T., Lin Y., Flow and heat transfer in a turbine nozzle guide vane with endwall contouring. 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference and Exhibit Las Vegas, U.S.A. (DOI:10.2514/6.2000–3002)Google Scholar
  25. [24]
    Shih T., Lin Y., Controlling secondary-flow structure by leading-edge airfoil fillet and inlet swirl to reduce aerodynamic loss and surface heat transfer. Journal of Turbomachinery, 2003, 125(1): 48–56.Google Scholar
  26. [25]
    Moser N., Volkert R., Joos F., Numerical optimization of a steam turbine control stage by flowpath profiling using evolutionary algorithm. ASME Turbo Expo: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition. 2011: 2417–2426. (DOI:10.1115/GT2011-46237)Google Scholar
  27. [26]
    Moser N., Steinhoff P., Joos F., Experimental and numerical investigations of flow path profiling on secondary flow losses in a turbine control stage. ASME Turbo Expo: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition. 2013, pp.: 1–9. (DOI: doi:10.1115/GT2013-94737)Google Scholar
  28. [27]
    Qi L., Zou Z., Wang P., et al., Control of secondary flow loss in turbine cascade by streamwise vortex. Computers & Fluids, 2012, 54(1): 45–55.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. [28]
    Jouybari J., Eftari M., Kaliji H., et al., Analytical modeling of performance characteristics of axial flow two-stage turbine engine using pressure losses models and comparing with experimental results. World Applied Sciences Journal, 2013, 21(9): 1250–1259.Google Scholar
  30. [29]
    Gao J., Zheng Q., Jia X., Performance improvement of shrouded turbines with the management of casing endwall interaction flows. Energy, 2014, 75: 430–442.Google Scholar
  31. [30]
    Ligrani P., Potts G., Fatemi A., Endwall aerodynamic losses from turbine components within gas turbine engines. Propulsion & Power Research, 2017, 6(1): 1–14.Google Scholar
  32. [31]
    Jennions I., Turner M., Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computations of transonic fan flow using an explicit flow solver and an implict k–solver. Journal of Turbomachinery, 1992, 115(2): 102–121.Google Scholar
  33. [32]
    Yoo J.Y., Yun J.W., Calculation of a three-dimensional turbulent cascade flow. Computational Mechanics, 1994, 14(2): 101–115.ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. [33]
    Toshiyuki A., Toyotaka S., Masatoshi S., Atsuhiro T., A numerical investigation of transonic axial compressor rotor flow using a low Reynold number k–turbulence model. Journal of Turbomachinery, 1999, 121(1): 44–48.Google Scholar
  35. [34]
    Mueller T., Oleary R., Physical and numerical experiments in laminar incompressible separating and reattaching flows. Fluid and Plasma Dynamics Conference. Los Angeles, California, 1970.Google Scholar
  36. [35]
    Moin P., Kim J., The structure of vorticity field in turbulent channel flow, Part I: analyses of instantaneous field statistic correlation. Journal of fluid Mechanics, 1985, 155(162): 441–464.ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. [36]
    Moin P., Kim J., The structure of vorticity field in turbulent channel flow, Part II: study of ensembleaveraged fields. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1985, 155(162): 465–506.Google Scholar
  38. [37]
    Han W., Feng Z., Wang Y., et al., Aerodynamic design and performance of supercritical carbon dioxide high pressure turbines. Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology, 2018, 50(07): 192–198. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  39. [38]
    Luo L., Du W., Wang S., Wu W., et al., Multi-objective optimization of the dimple/protrusion channel with pin fins for heat transfer enhancement. International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 2019, 29(2): 790–813.Google Scholar
  40. [39]
    Liu S., Feng Y., Cao Y., et al. Numerical simulation of supercritical catalytic steam reforming of aviation kerosene coupling with coking and heat transfer in minichannel. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2019, 137: 199–214.Google Scholar
  41. [40]
    Du W., Luo L., Wang S., et al., Flow structure and heat transfer characteristics in a 90-deg turned pin fined duct with different dimple/protrusion depths. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2019, 146: 826–842.Google Scholar
  42. [41]
    Luo L., Zhao Z., Kan X., et al., On the heat transfer and flow structures characteristics of turbine blade tip underside with dirt purge holes at different locations by using topological analysis. ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, 2019, 141(7): 071004–071004-18. (DOI: 10.1115/1.4042654)Google Scholar
  43. [42]
    Han W., Wang Y., Feng Z., et al., Study on the stratified flow phenomena of the endwall boundary layer in Supercritical CO2 turbine cascades. Thermal Power Generation, 2019, 48(02): 16–22. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  44. [43]
    Shi Y., Wang Z., Han W., Experimental investigation on pressure field and surface flow field characteristics of large enthalpy drop aft-loading curved turbine cascade. Journal of Experiments in Fluid Mechanics, 2011, 25(3): 24–29. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. [44]
    Hu H., Kobayashi T., Vortex structures downstream a lobed nozzle/mixer. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2008, 23(7): 1266–1278.Google Scholar
  46. [45]
    Han W., Yan P., Han W., et al., Design of wind turbines with shroud and lobed ejectors for efficient utilization of low-grade wind energy. Energy, 2015, 89: 687–701.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.R&D CenterXi’an Thermal Power Research Institute Co., Ltd.Xi’anChina
  2. 2.School of Energy and Power EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations