Journal of Thermal Science

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 169–183 | Cite as

A Review about Thermal Comfort in Aircraft

  • Juli FanEmail author
  • Qiongyao Zhou


Thermal comfort is an important factor which affects both work efficiency and life quality. On the basis of satisfying the normal life of the crew and reliable work of equipment, the thermal comfort is increasingly pursued through the design of the environmental control system of modern craft. Thus, a comprehensive survey of the thermal comfort in the cockpit is carried out. First of all, factors affecting the thermal comfort in aircraft cabin are summarized, including low relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, colored light, human metabolic rate and gender, among which the first three factors are environmental factors and the other two are human factors. Although noise is not a factor affecting thermal comfort, it is an important factor in the overall satisfaction of the aircraft cabin environment. Then the thermal comfort prediction models are introduced, including thermal comfort models suitable for steady state uniform environment and thermal comfort models suitable for transient non-uniform environment. Then the limitations of the typical thermal comfort models applied to aircraft are discussed. Since the concept of thermal adaptation has been gradually accepted in recent years, many field studies on thermal adaptation have been carried out. Therefore, the adaptive thermal comfort models are summarized and analyzed systematically in this paper. At present, mixing ventilation (MV) system is widely used in most commercial aircraft. However, the air quality under the MV system is very poor, and contaminants cannot be effectively eliminated. So a noticeable shift is the design of ventilation system for cabin drawing lessons from the surface buildings. Currently, the most interesting question is that whether the traditional mixing ventilation (MV) system in an aircraft can be replaced by or combined with displacement ventilation (DV) system without decreasing thermal comfort. A reduction of energy consumption is a valuable gain. Additionally, various seat personalized ventilation systems have also been proposed which could effectively reduce the risk of infectious diseases. At present, optimal design of airflow in aircraft cabin is the most commonly used method to enhance thermal comfort and save energy. The optimal design of the aircraft cabin colored lighting system, however, is also worth trying.


aircraft thermal comfort energy efficient ventilation system numerical simulation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51106074).


  1. [1]
    Fisk W.J., How IEQ affects health, productivity. ASHRAE Journal, 2002, 44(5): 56–60.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Yu J., Zhu Y., Ouyang Q., Discussion on research routes of using physiological index to evaluate human thermal comfort, work efficiency and long-term health. Heating Ventilating & Air Conditioning, 2010, 40(03): 1–5.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Leaman A., Bordass B., Assessing building performance in use 4: the Probe occupant surveys and their implications. Building Research & Information, 2001, 29: 129–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Haghighat F., Allard F., Megri A.C., et al., Measurement of thermal comfort and indoor air quality aboard 43 flights on commercial airlines. Indoor and Built Environment, 1999, 8(1): 58–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Lindgren T., Norbäck D., Cabin air quality: indoor pollutants and climate during intercontinental flights with and without tobacco smoking. Indoor Air, 2002, 12: 263–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Wang C., Yang X., Guan J., et al., Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in aircraft cabins. Building & Environment, 2014, 81: 1–6.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Hocking M.B., Passenger aircraft cabin air quality: trends, effects, societal costs, proposals. Chemosphere, 2000, 41(4): 603–615.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Spengler J.D., Ludwig S., Weker R.A., Ozone exposures during trans-continental and trans-Pacific flights. Indoor Air, 2004, 14: 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Strøm-Tejsen P., Wyon D.P., Lagercrantz L., et al., Passenger evaluation of the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity from 7-h exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin. Indoor Air, 2007, 17: 92–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Nagda N.L., Rector H.E., A critical review of reported air concentrations of organic compounds in aircraft cabins. Indoor Air, 2003, 13: 292–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Lindgren T., Norbäck D., Health and perception of cabin air quality among Swedish commercial airline crew. Indoor Air, 2005, 15: 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Zhang T.T., Li P., Wang S., A personal air distribution system with air terminals embedded in chair armrests on commercial airplanes. Building & Environment, 2012, 47: 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Zítek P., Vyhlídal T., Simeunović G., Nováková L., et al., Novel personalized and humidified air supply for airliner passengers. Building & Environment, 2010, 45: 2345–2353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Olsen S.J., Chang H.L., Cheung T.Y.Y., et al., Transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome on aircraft. New England Journal of Medicine, 2003, 349(25): 2416–2422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Dygert R.K., Dang T.Q., Mitigation of cross-contamination in an aircraft cabin via localized exhaust. Building & Environment, 2010, 45: 2015–2026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Roaf S., Nicol F., Humphreys M., et al., Twentieth century standards for thermal comfort: promoting high energy buildings. Architectural Science Review, 2010, 53(1): 65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Van H.J., Mazej M., Hensen J.L., Thermal comfort: research and practice. Frontiers in Bioscience, 2010, 15(4): 765–788.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    de Dear R.J., Akimoto T., Arens E.A., et al., Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years. Indoor Air, 2013, 23(6): 442–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Wyon D., Healthy buildings and their impact on productivity. 6th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Helsinki, Finland: Indoor Air, 1993, 93: 3–13.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Cui W., Cao G., Park J.H., et al., Influence of indoor air temperature on human thermal comfort, motivation and performance. Building & Environment, 2013, 68: 114–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Kekäläinen P., Niemelä R., Tuomainen M., et al., Effect of reduced summer indoor temperature on symptoms, perceived work environment and productivity in office work: An intervention study. Intelligent Buildings International, 2010, 2(4): 251–266.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Wyon D., Individual microclimate control: Required range, probable benefits and current feasibility. 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Nagoya, Japan, 1996, 1: 1067–1072.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Maier J., Marggraf-Micheel C., Weighting of climate parameters for the prediction of thermal comfort in an aircraft passenger cabin. Building & Environment, 2015, 84: 214–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Kubo H., Isoda N., Enomoto-Koshimizu H., Cooling effects of preferred air velocity in muggy conditions. Building & Environment, 1997, 32: 211–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Zhang H., Arens E., Pasut W., Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality. Building Research & Information, 2011, 39(2): 134–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Zhu Y., Ouyang Q., Cao B., et al., Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort. Indoor Air, 2015, 26: 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Fobelets A., Subjective human response to low-level air currents and asymmetric radiation. ASHRAE Transactions, 1987, 93: 497–523.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Zhai Y., Elsworth C., Arens E., et al., Using air movement for comfort during moderate exercise. Building & Environment, 2015, 94(1): 344–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Houghten F.C., Yaglou, C.P., Determining lines of equal comfort. ASHVE Transactions, 1923, 29: 163–176.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Nevins R.G., Rohles F.H., Springer W., et al., A temperature-humidity chart for thermal comfort of seated persons. ASHRAE Transactions, 1966, 72: 283–291.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Fanger P.O., Thermal comfort. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972, pp. 1‒15.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Mcintyre D.A., Griffiths I.D., Subjective responses to atmospheric humidity. Environmental Research, 1975, 9(1): 66–75.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Jing S., Li B., Tan M., et al., Impact of relative humidity on thermal comfort in a warm environment. Indoor & Built Environment, 2013, 22(4): 598–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Xu K.L., Effect of Low Air Humidity on Human Comfort Sensation., Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, 2016.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Mcnall P.E., Jaax R.F.H., Nevins R.G., Thermal comfort conditions for three levels of activity. ASHRAE Transactions, 1967, 73: 1–3.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Fountain M.E., Arens E., Xu T.E., et al., An investigation of thermal comfort at high humidities. Center for the Built Environment, 1999, 105: 94–103.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Grün G., Trimmel M., Holm A., Low humidity in the aircraft cabin environment and its impact on well-being-Results from a laboratory study. Building & Environment, 2012, 47(47): 23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Cui W., Ouyang Q., Zhu Y., et al., Thermal Environment and Passengers’ Comfort in Aircraft Cabin. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 2014, 261: 321–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Bachki L., Hot Micro-Climate of the Room. Fu Z.C. Translated. China Architecture & Building Press, Beijing, 1987, pp.12‒16.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Wang Z., He Y., Hou J., et al., Human skin temperature and thermal responses in asymmetrical cold radiation environments. Building & Environment, 2013, 67: 217–223.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    He M., Wang Z., Effect of values of PMV/PPD caused by the change of mean radiation temperature which near window in winter. Journal of Xian University of Architecture & Technology. 2014, 46: 388‒392.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Moon J.H., Jin W.L., Chan H.J., et al., Thermal comfort analysis in a passenger compartment considering the solar radiation effect. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2016, 107: 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Wu D., Study on Thermal Comfort in Cabin. Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China, 2011. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Zhi S., Sun J., Ming Z., et al., Analysis of thermal comfort in aircraft cockpit based on the modified PMV index. Acta Aeronautica Et Astronautica Sinica. 2015, 36: 819‒826.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Küller R., Ballal S., Laike T., et al., The impact of light and colour on psychological mood: a cross-cultural study of indoor work environments. Ergonomics, 2006, 49(14): 1496–1507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Iskra-Golec I.M., Wazna A., Smith L., Effects of blue-enriched light on the daily course of mood, sleepiness and light perception: A field experiment. Lighting Research & Technology, 2012, 44(4): 506–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Motamedzadeh M., Golmohammadi R., Kazemi R., et al., The effect of blue-enriched white light on cognitive performances and sleepiness of night-shift workers: A field study. Physiology & Behavior, 2017, 177: 208–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Bennett C.A., Rey P., What’s so hot about red? Human Factors, 1972, 14(2): 149–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Fanger P.O., Breum N.O., Jerking E., Can colour and noise influence man’s thermal comfort? Ergonomics, 1977, 20(1): 11–18.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Winzen J., Albers F., Marggraf-Micheel C., The influence of coloured light in the aircraft cabin on passenger thermal comfort. Lighting Research & Technology, 2013, 59(46): 465–475.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Albers F., Maier J., Marggraf-Micheel C., In search of evidence for the hue-heat hypothesis in aircraft cabin. Lighting Research & Technology, 2014, 47(4): 483–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Lu Y., Lin Y., Liu J., et al., The ergonomie research on aircraft cabin mood lighting. 13th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting (SSL China), Beijing, China, 2017: 123‒126.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Yin H., Wang L., Zhang Y. et al., Overview of main parameters affecting human thermal comfort and its determination. Contamination Control & Air-Conditioning Technology, 2016, (1): 19‒23.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Karyono T.H., Report on thermal comfort and building energy studies in Jakarta—Indonesia. Building & Environment, 2000, 35: 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Warwick P.M., Busby R., Influence of mild cold on 24 h energy expenditure in ‘normally’ clothed adults. British Journal of Nutrition, 1990, 63(3): 481–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Luo M., Zhou X., Zhu Y., et al., Revisiting an overlooked parameter in thermal comfort studies, the metabolic rate. Energy & Buildings, 2016, 118: 152–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Wang M.N., Study on Two-node human thermal regulation model in low atmospheric pressure environment. Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao, China, 2013. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    Cui W., Wang H., Wu T., et al., The influence of a low air pressure environment on human metabolic rate during short-term (< 2 h) exposures. Indoor Air, 2017, 27: 282–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    Lan L., Lian Z., Liu W., et al, Investigation of gender difference in thermal comfort for Chinese people. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2008, 102(4): 471–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    Schellen L., Loomans M.G., de Wit M.H., et al., The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under nonuniform environmental conditions--gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling. Physiology & Behavior, 2012, 107(2): 252–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Wang J., Experimental research on the gender difference of thermal comfort under cabin environment. Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, 2014. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Mellert V., Baumann I., Freese N., et al., Impact of sound and vibration on health, travel comfort and performance of flight attendants and pilots. Aerospace Science & Technology, 2008, 12(1): 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    Jan U., Vojtěch M., Linking traffic noise, noise annoyance and life satisfaction: a case study. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 2013, 10(5): 1895–1915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Pennig S., Quehl J., Rolny V., Effects of aircraft cabin noise on passenger comfort. Ergonomics, 2012, 55(10): 1252–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    Jia S., Lai D., Kang J., et al., Evaluation of relative weights for temperature, CO2, and noise in the aircraft cabin environment. Building & Environment, 2018, 131: 108–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Gagge A.P., An effective temperature scale based on a simple model of human physiological regulatory response. ASHRAE Transactions, 1971, 77: 247–262.Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Gagge A.P., Fobelets A., Berglund L., A standard predictive index of human response to the thermal environment. ASHRAE Transactions, 1986, 92: 709–731.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Liu G.D., Study on thermal comfort of human body within lower-pressure environment of asymptomatic altitude reaction. Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, China, 2008. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Tong L., Hu S., Study on characterization of skin temperature in low pressure environment based on thermal sensation. Building Science, 2015, 2: 34–39. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Tanabe S., Arens E.A., Bauman F., et al., Evaluating thermal environments by using a thermal manikin with controlled skin surface temperature. ASHRAE Transactions, 1994, 100(1): 39–48.Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Wyon D.P., Larsson S., Forsgren B., et al., Standard procedures for assessing vehicle climate with a thermal manikin. SAE Technical Paper Series, 1989, 890049.Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    Arens E., Zhang H., Huizenga C., Partial- and wholebody thermal sensation and comfort—Part II: Non-uniform environmental conditions. Journal of Thermal Biology, 2006, 31: 60–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Duan M.L., The Study on Thermal Environment and Comfort for Desktop-based Task-ambient Air Conditioning. Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, 2007. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Ding Q., Jin Q., Lin D., et al., Thermal comfort study on non-uniform thermal environment with local ventilation in summer. Heating Ventilating & Air Conditioning, 2014, 44(2): 107–113.Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Zhang H., Huizenga C., Arens E., et al., Thermal sensation and comfort in transient non-uniform thermal environments. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2004, 92(6): 728–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Wang X., Thermal comfort and sensation under transient conditions. The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1994.Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Fiala D., Lomas K.J., Stohrer M., First principles modeling of thermal sensation responses in steady-state and transient conditions. ASHRAE Transactions, 2003, 109: 179–186.Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    Zhang H., Arens E., Huizenga C., et al., Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments: Part I: Local sensation of individual body parts. Building & Environment, 2010, 45: 380–388.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    Zhang H., Arens E., Huizenga C., et al., Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part II: Local comfort of individual body parts. Building & Environment, 2010, 45: 389–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    Zhang H., Arens E., Huizenga C., et al., Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part III: Whole-body sensation and comfort. Building & Environment, 2010, 45: 399–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    Zhao Y., Zhang H., Arens E.A., et al., Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part IV: Adaptive neutral setpoints and smoothed whole-body sensation model. Building & Environment, 2014, 72: 300–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    Zhou X., Lian Z., Lan L., An individualized human thermoregulation model for Chinese adults. Building & Environment, 2013, 70: 257–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    Zhou X., Zhang H., Lian Z., et al., A model for predicting thermal sensation of Chinese people. Building & Environment, 2014, 82: 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    Zhou X., A multi-node thermal comfort model based on Chinese thermo-biological features. Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, 2015. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Humphreys M.A., Nicol J.F., Raja I.A., Field studies of indoor thermal comfort and the progress of the adaptive approach. Journal of Advances on Building Energy Research, 2007, 1: 55–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. [86]
    Ealiwa M.A., Taki A.H., Howarth A.T., et al., An investigation into thermal comfort in the summer season of Ghadames, Libya. Building & Environment, 2001, 36(2): 231–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    Fanger P.O., Toftum J., Thermal comfort in the future excellence and expectation. Conference Proceedings on Moving Thermal Comfort Standards into 21st Century, Windsor, UK, 2001: 11‒18.Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    Jiang Y.T., Yang C.Z., et al., Relation of sexes and thermal comfort in non-air-conditioned environment. Heating Ventilating & Air Conditioning, 2006, 36(5): 17–21.Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Cao B., Zhu Y., Ouyang Q., et al., Field study of human thermal comfort and thermal adaptability during the summer and winter in Beijing. Energy & Buildings, 2011, 43(5): 1051–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    Nicol J.F., Humphreys M.A., Thermal comfort as part of a self-regulating system. Building Research and Practice, 1973, 6(3): 191‒197.Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Brager G.S., de Dear R.J., Thermal adaptation in the built environment: a literature review. Energy and Buildings, 1998, 27(1): 83‒96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    de Dear R., Developing an adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference. ASHRAE Transactions, 1998, 104(1): 73–81.Google Scholar
  93. [93]
    Nicol F., Roaf S., Pioneering new indoor temperature standards: the Pakistan project. Energy & Buildings, 1996, 23(3): 169–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. [94]
    Toea D.H.C., Kubota T., Development of an adaptive thermal comfort equation for naturally ventilated buildings in hot-humid climates using ASHRAE RP-884 database. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2013, 2(3): 278–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    Rijal H.B., Humphreys M.A., Nicol J.F., Development of the adaptive model for thermal comfort in Japanese houses. 8th Windsor Conference: Counting the Cost of Comfort in a changing world, Windsor, UK, 2014: 403‒406.Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    Singh M.K., Mahapatra S., Teller J., Development of thermal comfort models for various climatic zones of North-East India. Sustainable Cities & Society, 2015, 14: 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. [97]
    Yang L., Climatic analysis techniques and architectural design strategies for bio-climatic design. Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, China, 2003. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    Zhang G., Zheng C., Yang W., et al., Thermal comfort investigation of naturally ventilated classrooms in a subtropical region. Indoor & Built Environment, 2007, 16(2): 148–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    Mao Y., Study on climate adaptability of human beings to thermal comfort in China. Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, China, 2003. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    Yang L., Yang Q., Wang L., et al., Research on adaptive thermal comfort model for temperate area. International Conference on Building Environmental Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, 2010: 213‒217.Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    Yang D., Xiong J., Liu W., Adjustments of the adaptive thermal comfort model based on the running mean outdoor temperature for Chinese people: A case study in Changsha China. Building & Environment, 2017, 114: 357–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. [102]
    Cao B., Influence of climate and building environment on thermal adaptability of human beings. Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 2012. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    Yu H.R., Study on thermal comfort and thermal adaptation of human body in heating architectural environment in severe cold area. Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, 2017. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  104. [104]
    Pang L., Xu J., Fang L., et al., Evaluation of an improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin. Building & Environment, 2013, 59: 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    Jin Y., Hu X., Zhu L., et al., Study on airflow characteristics in the semi-closed irregular narrow flow channel. Journal of Thermal science, 2016, 25(2): 123–129.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. [106]
    Li Y.Q., Yuan S., Lai H., Numerical study of unsteady flows with cavitation in a high-speed micro centrifugal pump. Journal of Thermal Science, 2017, 26(1): 18–24.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. [107]
    Wu C., Numerical simulation of mixing ventilation in a commercial airliner cabin. Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, 2012. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    Zhang Y.L., Analysis of cabin thermal comfort in a civil regional aircraft. Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing, China, 2014. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    Zhang T.F., Li P.H., Zhao Y., et al., Various air distribution modes on commercial airplanes. Part 1: Experimental measurement. Hvac & R Research. 2013, 19: 268‒282.Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    Zhang T., Chen Q., Novel air distribution systems for commercial aircraft cabins. Building & Environment, 2007, 42: 1675–1684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. [111]
    Dehne T., Bosbach J., Heider A., Comparison of surface temperatures and cooling rates for different ventilation concepts in an A320 aircraft cabin under flight conditions. 13th SCANVAC International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms and Airplane, São Paulo, Brazil, 2014: 409‒414.Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    Melikov A., Pitchurov G., Naydenov K., et al., Field study on occupant comfort and the office thermal environment in rooms with displacement ventilation. Indoor Air, 2005, 15: 205–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. [113]
    Maier J., Marggraf-Micheel C., Dehne T., et al., Thermal comfort of different displacement ventilation systems in an aircraft passenger cabin. Building & Environment, 2017, 111: 256–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. [114]
    Bosbach J., Lange S., Dehne T., et al., Alternative ventilation concepts for aircraft cabins. Ceas Aeronautical Journal, 2013, 4(3): 301–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. [115]
    Bosbach J., Heider A., Dehne T., et al., Evaluation of cabin displacement ventilation under flight conditions. 28th international congress of the aeronautical sciences ICAS2012, Brisbane, Australia, 2012.Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    Zhang Y., Liu J., Pei J., et al., Performance evaluation of different air distribution systems in an aircraft cabin mockup. Aerospace Science & Technology, 2017, 70: 359–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. [117]
    Li W.J., Research on a novel personalized air distribution system for commercial aircraft cabins. Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, 2012. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    Farag A.M., Khalil E.E., Hassan M.A., Personalized air conditioning of air craft cabins for passengers comfort and efficient energy use. 51st AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, Orlando, FL, USA, 2015, AIAA 2015‒4125: 1‒11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations