Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Science

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 294–305 | Cite as

Investigation on the Influence of Refrigerant Charge Amount on the Cooling Performance of Air Conditioning Heat Pump System for Electric Vehicles

  • Kang Li
  • Jiao Lan
  • Guoliang Zhou
  • Qitian Tang
  • Qia Cheng
  • Yidong FangEmail author
  • Lin SuEmail author
Article
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

The application of air conditioning heat pump (ACHP) in electric vehicles could lead to significant electrical power saving effect. As for an air conditioning heat pump system for electric vehicles, the influence of refrigerant charge amount should be investigated during the design phase. In this study, experimental method was employed to investigate the influence of the refrigerant charge amount on the performance of the ACHP system. The results showed that the refrigerant charge amount had different influence on the refrigerant properties at various locations within the system. The coefficient of performance and pressure-enthalpy diagram were calculated, and showed a close relationship with refrigerant charge amount under different compressor speeds. The degree of subcooling and the degree of superheating were recorded and the critical charge amount was determined by a typical practical test method. In addition, the critical refrigerant charge amount determined by the experimental method was also compared with two typical void fraction correlation models, and the model with consideration of two phase stream reaction of the refrigerant showed a good estimation accuracy on the critical charge amount.

Keywords

air conditioning heat pump electric vehicle critical refrigerant charge cooling performance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by The Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science (No. HZ2018-KF03), Shanghai Sailing Program (No. 18YF1417900), Huaqiao University Scientific Research Foundation (No. 16BS801). The authors thankfully acknowledge all these supports.

References

  1. [1]
    Qin F., Zhang G., Xue Q., Zou H., Tian C., Experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of heat pump systems with two different injection portholes compressors for electric vehicles. Applied Energy, 2017, 185: 2085–2093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Min H., Cao Y., Zeng X., Qiao W., Development and performance simulation of electric air conditioner module basen on ADVISOR. Automotive Engineering, 2010, 32(4): 359–352. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Qin F., Xue Q., Albarracin Velez G.M., Zhang G., Zou H., Tian C., Experimental investigation on heating performance of heat pump for electric vehicles at–20°C ambient temperature. Energy Conversion and Management, 2015, 102: 39–49.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Zou H., Jiang B., Wang Q., Tian C., Yan Y., Performance analysis of a heat pump air conditioning system coupling with battery cooling for electric vehicles. Energy Procedia, 2014, 61: 891–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Wan X., Cai L., Yan J., Ma X., Chen T., Zhang X., Power management strategy for a parallel hybrid–power gas engine heat pump system. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2017, 110: 234–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Kim K.Y., Kim S.C., Kim M.S., Experimental studies on the heating performance of the PTC heater and heat pump combined system in fuel cells and electric vehicles. International Journal of Automotive Technology, 2013, 13(6): 971–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Afshari F., Comakli O., Adiguzel N., Zavaragh H.G., Influence of refrigerant properties and charge on performance of reciprocating compressor in air source heat pump. Journal of Energy Engineering, 2016, 143(1): 04016025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Hosoz M., Direk M., Performance evaluation of an integrated automotive air conditioning and heat pump system. Energy Conversion and Management, 2006, 47(5): 545–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Direk M., Hosoz M., Yigit K.S., Canakci M., Turkcan A., Alptekin E., et al. Experimental performance of an R134a automobile heat pump system coupled to the passenger compartment. World Renewable Energy Congress, Linköping, Sweden, 2011: 3605‒3612.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Dong H.K., Han S.P., Min S.K., The effect of refrigerant charge on single and cascade cycle heat pump systems. International Journal of Refrigeration, 2014, 40(3): 254–268.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Pottker G., Hrnjak P., Effect of condenser subcooling of the performance of vapor compression systems: experimental and numerical investigation. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference, Purdue, USA, 2012: 2512‒2521.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Pottker G., Hrnjak P., Designated vs. non–designated areas for condenser subcooling. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference, Purdue, USA, 2012: 2522‒2531.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Cho H., Ryu C., Kim Y., Kim H.Y., Effects of refrigerant charge on the performance of a tranditional CO2 heat pump. International Journal of Refrigeration, 2005, 28(8): 1266–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    RedRedón A., Navarro–Peris E., Pitarch M., Gonzálvez–Macia J., Corberán J.M., Analysis and optimization of subcritical two–stage vapor injection heat pump systems. Applied Energy, 2014, 124(7): 231–240.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Ratts E.B., Brown J.S., An experimental analysis of the effect of refrigerant charge level on an automotive refrigerant system. International Journal of Thermal Science, 2000, 39(5): 592–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Rice C K., The effect of void fraction correlation and heat flux assumption on refrigerant charge inventory predictions. Ashrae Transactions, 1987, 93: 341–367.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Thom J.R.S., Prediction of pressure drop during forced circulation boiling of water. International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, 1964, 7(7): 709–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Zivi S.M., Estimation of steady state steam void fraction by means of the principle of minimum entropy production. Journal of Heat Transfer, 1964, 86(2): 247–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Smith S.L., Void fractions in two phase flow: a correlation based upon an equal velocity head model. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineering, 1969, 184(1): 647–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Premoli A,, Francesco D,, Prina A., A dimensionless correlation for determining the density of two–phase mixtures. Termotecnica (Milan), 1971, 25(1): 17–26.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Lockhart R.W., Martinelli R.C., Proposed correlation of data for isothermal two–phase, two–component flow in pipes. Chemical Engineering Progress, 1949, 45: 39–48.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Baroczy C.J., Correlation of liquid fraction in two–phase flow with applications to liquid metal, Atomics International, Division of North American Aviation, Inc., Canoga Park, California, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Tandon T.N., Varma H.K., Gupta C.P., A void fraction model for annular two phase flow. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 1985, 28(1): 191–198.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Hughmark G.A., Hold–up in gaseliquid flow. Chemical Engineering Progress, 1962, 58: 62–65.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Rigot G., Fluid capacity of an evaporator in direct expansion. Plomberie, 1973, 328: 133–144.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Xu Y., Fang X., Correlations of void fraction for twophase refrigerant flow in pipes. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2014, 64: 242–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Dalkilic A.S., Laohalertdecha S., Wongwise S., Effect of void fraction models on the two–phase friction factor of R134a during condensation in vertical downward flow in a smooth tube. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 2008, 35(8): 921–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Zhou G., Li H., Cui S., Liu Y., Xu Y., Experimental study on refrigerant charge of heat pump air conditioning system in electric bus. Cryogenics and Superconductivity, 2016, 3: 44–48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Energy and Power EngineeringUniversity of Shanghai for Science and TechnologyShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations