Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Science

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 73–81 | Cite as

Fluid resistance characteristics research of nanowire rotation under a magnetic field

  • Lixin Yang
  • Nan Zhao
  • Li Jia
Article

Abstract

In this study, a visualization-based experiment was performed to measure the motion of the nanowire under a magnetic field. A simulation method based on a multiple reference frame model (MRF model) was used to calculate fluid torque. Here, it was validated with the experimental data and theoretical results. Fluid torque of steady rotated nanowire was simulated and compared using experiment and theoretical models. The unsteady rotated condition was studied using transient simulation to compare with theory and the results showed that the acceleration of nanowire did not affect the flow field, indicating that the theoretical models based on the steady condition were still valid. The influence of solid walls on nanowire rotation was also studied here. The results showed that if the nanowire was placed close to the wall, the viscous force of wall would increase the velocity gradient around the nanowire, causing higher torque predictions. The fluid torque decreased quickly when the vertical distance between nanowire and wall exceeded 5 times the diameter of the wire.

Keywords

Nanowire rotation simulation fluid torque wall effect 

Nomenclature

C

Geometry factor of fluid torque

d

Diameter of nanowire (μm)

D

Diameter of simulation region (μm)

h

Distance between nanowire and wall (μm)

hg

Height of simulation region (μm)

H

Magnetic strength (Gs)

l

Length of nanowire (μm)

Ms

Spontaneous magnetization of Ni (A/m)

p

Ratio of length to diameter of nanowire

r

Radius of nanowire (μm)

Greek letters

µ

Viscosity of fluid (Pas)

τd

Fluid torque (Nm)

τm

Magnetic torque (Nm)

θL

Lag angle (rad)

θH

Angle of magnetic field (rad)

θW

Angle of nanowire (rad)

ωL

Angular velocity of lag angle (rad/s)

ωH

Angular velocity of magnetic field (rad/s)

ωW

Angular velocity of nanowire (rad/s)

ρ

Density of fluid (kg/m3)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Tokarev, A., Luzinov, I., Owens, J.R., et al: Magnetic rotational spectroscopy with nanorods to probe time-dependent rheology of microdroplets, Langmuir, Vol.28, No. 26, pp.10061–10071, (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Schrittwieser, S., Ludwig, F., Dieckhoff, J., et al: Direct protein detection in the sample solution by monitoring rotational dynamics of nickel nanorods, Small, Vol.10, No.2, pp.407–411, (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Fan, D.L., Zhu, F.Q., Cammarata, R.C., et al: Controllable high-speed rotation of nanowires, Physical Review Letters, Vol.95, No. 24, Paper No. 247208, (2005).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Zhang, L., Petit, T., Lu, Y., et al: Controlled propulsion and cargo transport of rotating nickel nanowires near a patterned solid surface, ACS Nano, Vol.4, No.10, pp.6228–6234, (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Keshoju, K., Xing, H., Sun, L.: Magnetic field driven nanowire rotation in suspension, Applied Physics Letters, Vol.91, No. 12, Paper No. 123114, (2007).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Shelton, W.A., Bonin, K.D., Walker, T.G.: Nonlinear motion of optically torqued nanorods, Physical Review E, Vol.71, No. 3, Paper No. 036204, (2005).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Gu, Y., Burtovyy, R., Townsend, J., et al: Collective alignment of nanorods in thin Newtonian films, Soft Matter, Vol.9, No. 35, pp.8532–8539, (2013).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Gu, Y., Kornev, K.G.: Alignment of magnetic nanorods in solidifying films, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Vol.30, No. 11, pp.958–963, (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Sun, L., Keshoju, K., Xing, H.: Magnetic field mediated nanowire alignment in liquids for nanocomposite synthesis, Nanotechnology, Vol.19, No. 40, Paper No. 405603, (2008).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Anguelouch, A., Leheny, R.L., Reich, D.H.: Application of ferromagnetic nanowires to interfacial microrheology, Applied Physics Letters, Vol.89, No. 11, Paper No. 111914, (2006).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Zhang, L., Lu, Y., Dong, L., et al: Noncontact manipulation of Ni nanowires using a rotating magnetic field, 9th IEEE conference on nanotechnology, Genoa, Italy, pp.487–490, (2009).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Tokarev, A., Rubin, B., Bedford, et al: Magnetic nanorods for optofluidic applications. AIP conference proceedings, Vol.1311, No. 1, pp.204–209, (2010).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Batchelor, G.K.: Slender-body theory for particles of arbitrary cross-section in Stokes flow, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol.44, No. 3, pp.419–440, (1970).ADSCrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Edwards, S.F., Doi, M.: The theory of polymer dynamics, Clarendon, Oxford, pp.289–295, (1986).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Tirado, M.M., de La Torre, J.G.: Rotational dynamics of rigid, symmetric top macromolecules. Application to circular cylinders, The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol.73, No. 4, pp.1986–1993, (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Tirado, M.M., Martinez, C.L., de La Torre, J.G.: Comparison of theories for the translational and rotational diffusion coefficients of rod-like macromolecules. Application to short DNA fragments, The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol.81, No. 4, pp.2047–2052, (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Tan, X.Q., Zeng, M.Y., Cui, W., et al: Dynamics of a magnetic nanowire suspended in TN cell under magnetic field, Chemical Physics Letters, Vol.513, No. 1, pp.154–159, (2011).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Ghosh, A., Mandal, P., Karmakar, S., et al: Analytical theory and stability analysis of an elongated nanoscale object under external torque, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol.15, No. 26, pp.10817–10823, (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lixin Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nan Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Li Jia
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control EngineeringBeijing Jiaotong UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of flow and heat transfer of phase changing in micro and small scaleBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations