Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 16, Issue 11, pp 2502–2518 | Cite as

Effects of river flow velocity on the formation of landslide dams

  • Kun-Ting Chen
  • Xiao-Qing Chen
  • Gui-Sheng Hu
  • Yu-Shu KuoEmail author
  • Hua-Yong Chen
Article
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

Natural dams are formed when landslides are triggered by heavy rainfall during extreme weather events in the mountainous areas of Taiwan. During landslide debris movement, two processes occur simultaneously: the movement of landslide debris from a slope onto the riverbed and the erosion of the debris under the action of high-velocity river flow. When the rate of landslide deposition in a river channel is higher than the rate of landslide debris erosion by the river flow, the landslide forms a natural dam by blocking the river channel. In this study, the effects of the rates of river flow erosion and landslide deposition (termed the erosive capacity and depositional capacity, respectively) on the formation of natural dams are quantified using a physics-based approach and are tested using a scaled physical model. We define a dimensionless velocity index vde as the ratio between the depositional capacity of landslide debris (vd) and the erosive capacity of water flow (ve). The experimental test results show that a landslide dam forms when landslide debris moves at high velocity into a river channel where the river-flow velocity is low, that is, the dimensionless velocity index vde > 54. Landslide debris will not have sufficient depositional capacity to block stream flow when the dimensionless velocity index vde < 47. The depositional capacity of a landslide can be determined from the slope angle and the friction of the sliding surface, while the erosive capacity of a dam can be determined using river flow velocity and rainfall conditions. The methodology described in this paper was applied to seven landslide dams that formed in Taiwan on 8 August 2009 during Typhoon Morakot, the Tangjiashan landslide dam case, and the Yingxiu-Wolong highway K24 landslide case. The dimensionless velocity index presented in this paper can be used before a rainstorm event occurs to determine if the formation of a landslide dam is possible.

Keywords

Natural dam Landslide Depositional capacity of landslide debris Erosive capacity of water flows 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank three anonymous reviewers for constructive comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 41661144028, 41771045 and 41501012), the CAS “Light of West China” Program, the Foundation for Young Scientist of Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS (Grant No. SDS-QN-1912) and the Foundation of Youth Innovation Promotion Association, CAS (Grant No. 2017425).

References

  1. Casagli N, Ermini L, Rosati G (2003) Determining grain size distribution of the material composing landslide dams in the Northern Apennines: sampling and processing methods. Engineering Geology 69: 83–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0013-7952(02)00249-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chai H, Liu H, Zhang Z (1996) The main conditions of landslide dam. Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation 7(1): 41–46. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Chen CY, Chang JM (2015) Landslide dam formation susceptibility analysis based on geomorphic features. Landslides 13: 1019–1033.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-015-0671-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen KT, Chen XQ, Hu GS, et al. (2019a) Dimensionless assessment method of landslide dam formation caused by tributary debris flow events. Geofluids 2019 (Article ID 7083058).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7083058 Google Scholar
  5. Chen KT, Chen XQ, Niu ZP, Guo XJ (2019b) Early identification of river blocking induced by tributary debris flow based on dimensionless volume index. Landslides.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-019-01221-8
  6. Chen KT, Kuo YS, Shieh CL (2014) Rapid geometry analysis for earthquake-induced and rainfall-induced landslide dams in Taiwan. Journal of Mountain Science 11: 360–370.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2664-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen KT, Lin CH, Chen XQ, et al. (2018a) An assessment method for debris flow dam formation in Taiwan. Earth Sciences Research Journal 22: 37–43.  https://doi.org/10.15446/esrj.v22n1.62389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen KT, Wu JH (2018b) Simulating the failure process of the Xinmo landslide using discontinuous deformation analysis. Engineering Geology 239: 269–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2018.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen XQ, Cui P, Li Y, Zhao WY (2011) Emergency response to the Tangjiashan landslide-dammed lake resulting from the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. Landslides 11: 91–98.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-010-0236-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng ZL, Wu JS, Geng XY (2005) Debris flow dam formation in southeast Tibet. Journal of Mountain Science 2(2): 155–163.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02918331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chubu Regional Construction Bureau (1987) Case studies of natural dam in Japan. Research Report of Chubu Regional Construction Bureau. Ministry of Construction, Japan. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  12. Ciampalini A, Raspini F, Lagomarsino D, et al. (2016) Landslide susceptibility map refinement using PSInSAR data. Remote Sensing of Environment 184: 302–315.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.07.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Copons R, Vilaplana JM, Linares R (2009) Rockfall travel distance analysis by using empirical models (Solà d’Andorra la Vella, Central Pyrenees). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9: 2107–2118.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-9-2107-2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Corominas J (1996) The angle of reach as a mobility index for small and large landslides. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 33: 260–271.  https://doi.org/10.1139/t96-005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Costa JE, Schuster RL (1988) The formation and failure of natural dams. Geological Society of America Bulletin 100: 1054–1068.  https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<1054:TFAFON>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. D’Agostino V, Cesca M, Marchi L (2010) Field and laboratory investigations of runout distances of debris flows in the Dolomites (Eastern Italian Alps). Geomorphology 115: 294–304.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.06.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dal Sasso SF, Sole A, Pascale S, et al. (2014) Assessment methodology for the prediction of landslide dam hazard. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 14: 557–567.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhessd-1-5663-2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalla Fontana G, Marchi L (2003) Slope-area relationships and sediment dynamics in two alpine streams. Hydrological Processes 17: 73–87.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.1115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ding WT, Xu WJ (2018) Study on the multiphase fluid-solid interaction in granular materials based on an LBM-DEM coupled method. Powder Technology 335: 301–314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2018.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dong JJ, Lai PJ, Chang CP, et al. (2014) Deriving landslide dam geometry from remote sensing images for the rapid assessment of critical parameters related to dam-breach hazards. Landslides 11: 93–105.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-012-0375-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dong JJ, Li YS, Kuo CY, et al. (2011) The formation and breach of a short-lived landslide dam at Hsiaolin village, Taiwan—Part I: Post-event reconstruction of dam geometry. Engineering Geology 123: 40–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Du C, Yao LK, Shakya S, et al. (2014) Damming of large river by debris flow: Dynamic process and particle composition. Journal of Mountain Science 11: 634–643.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-012-2568-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ermini L, Casagli N (2003) Prediction of the behaviour of landslide dams using a geomorphological dimensionless index. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28: 31–47.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.424 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fan XM, Rossiter DG, Westen CJV, et al. (2014) Empirical prediction of coseismic landslide dam formation. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39: 1913–1926.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3585 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fan XM, van Westen CJ, Xu Q, et al. (2012) Analysis of landslide dams induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 57: 25–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2012.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Finlay PJ, Mostyn GR, Fell R (1999) Landslide risk assessment: prediction of travel distance. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 36: 556–562.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-36-3-556 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Forestry Bureau (2010) Investigations and strategy for hazard mitigation of the Namasha and Shih-Wun landslide dam. Research Report of Forestry Bureau. Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Guo D, Hamada M, He C, et al. (2014) An empirical model for landslide travel distance prediction in Wenchuan earthquake area. Landslides 11: 281–291.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-013-0444-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guzzetti F, Ardizzone F, Cardinali M, et al. (2009) Landslide volumes and landslide mobilization rates in Umbria, central Italy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 279: 222–229.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2009.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hsu JPC, Capart H (2008) Onset and growth of tributary-dammed lakes. Water Resources Research 44(11).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008WR007020
  31. Hungr O (1995) A model for the runout analysis of rapid flow slides, debris flows and avalanches. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 32: 610–623.  https://doi.org/10.1139/t95-063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hutter K, Koch T, Pluss C, et al. (1995) The dynamics of avalanches of granular materials from initiation to runout. Part II. Experiments. Acta Mechanica 109: 127–165.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01176820 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Korup O (2004) Geomorphometric characteristics of New Zealand landslide dams. Engineering Geology 73: 13–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2003.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Korup O, Strom AL, Weidinger JT (2006) Fluvial response to large rock-slope failures: Examples from the Himalayas, the Tien Shan, and the Southern Alps in New Zealand. Geomorphology 78: 3–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kuo YS, Tsai YJ, Chen YS, et al. (2013) Movement of deep-seated rainfall-induced landslide at Hsiaolin Village during Typhoon Morakot. Landslides 10: 191–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-012-0315-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kuo YS, Tsang YC, Chen KT, et al. (2011) Analysis of landslide dam geometries. Journal of Mountain Science 8: 544–550.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-011-2128-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee SP, Chen YC, Shieh CL, et al. (2013) Using real-time abnormal hydrology observations to identify a river blockage event resulted from a natural dam. Landslides 11: 1007–1017.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-013-0441-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu CY (2015) Mechanism Analysis for Yingxiu-Wolong Highway K24 Landslide. MD thesis, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China. p 10–33.Google Scholar
  39. Liu N, Cheng ZL, Cui P, et al. (2013) Dammed Lake and Risk Management. Science Press, Beijing, China. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. Manzella I, Labiouse V (2013) Empirical and analytical analyses of laboratory granular flows to investigate rock avalanche propagation. Landslides 10: 23–36.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-011-0313-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mori T, Sakaguchi T, Inoue K (2011) Countermeasure for natural dam in Japan. Kokonshoin, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  42. Nakagawa H, Tsujimoto T (1975) Study on mechanism of motion of individual sediment particles. Proceedings of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers 244: 71–80. (In Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Okura Y, Kitahara H, Kawanami A, et al. (2003) Topography and volume effects on travel distance of surface failure. Engineering Geology 67: 243–254.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0013-7952(00)00049-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Peng M, Zhang LM (2012) Breaching parameters of landslide dams. Landslides 9: 13–31.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-011-0271-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Scheidegger AE (1973) On the prediction of the reach and velocity of catastrophic landslides. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 5(4): 231–236.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01301796 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shrestha BB, Nakagawa H (2016) Hazard assessment of the formation and failure of the Sunkoshi landslide dam in Nepal. Natural Hazards 82: 2029–2049.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2283-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Soil and Water Conservation Bureau (2011) The reconstruction of the processes of compound disasters caused by the 2009 Typhoon Morakot. Research Report of Soil and Water Conservation Bureau. Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Nantou, Taiwan. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. Song YX, Huang D, Cen DF (2016) Numerical modelling of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake-triggered Daguangbao landslide using a velocity and displacement dependent friction law. Engineering Geology 215: 50–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tabata S, Mizuyama T, Inoue K (2002) Natural Landslide Dams Hazards. Kokonshoin, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  50. Tacconi Stefanelli C, Segoni S, Casagli N, et al. (2016) Geomorphic indexing of landslide dams evolution. Engineering Geology 208: 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.04.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Takahashi T, Kuang SF (1988) Hydrograph prediction of debris flow due to failure of landslide dam. Disaster Prevention Research Institute Annals 31: 601–615. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  52. Tseng CM, Lin CW, Stark CP, et al. (2013) Application of a multi-temporal, LiDAR-derived, digital terrain model in a landslide-volume estimation. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38(13): 1587–1601.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3454 Google Scholar
  53. Wang W, Zhang H, Zheng L, et al. (2017) A new approach for modeling landslide movement over 3D topography using 3D discontinuous deformation analysis. Computers and Geotechnics 81: 87–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2016.07.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Water Resources Agency (2009) The analysis of the rainfall and river discharge during Typhoon Morakot. Research Report of Water Resources Agency. Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei, Taiwan (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  55. Xu WJ, Xu Q, Wang YJ (2013) The mechanism of high-speed motion and damming of the Tangjiashan landslide. Engineering Geology 157: 8–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yan J, Cao ZX, Liu HH, et al. (2009) Experimental study of landslide dam-break flood over erodible bed in open channels. Journal of Hydrodynamics 21: 124–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(08)60127-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yang Y, Cao SY, Yang KJ, et al. (2015) Experimental study of breach process of landslide dams by overtopping and its initiation mechanisms. Journal of Hydrodynamics 27: 872–883.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(15)60550-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhao T, Dai F, Xu NW (2017) Coupled DEM-CFD investigation on the formation of landslide dams in narrow rivers. Landslides 14: 189–201.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-015-0675-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhou C, Yin K, Cao Y, et al. (2018) Landslide susceptibility modeling applying machine learning methods: A case study from Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. Computers & Geosciences 112: 23–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2017.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhou GGD, Cui P, Chen HY et al. (2013) Experimental study on cascading landslide dam failures by upstream flows. Landslides 10: 633–643.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-012-0352-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhou M, Zhou GGD, Cui KFE, et al. (2019) Influence of inflow discharge and bed erodibility on outburst flood of landslide dam. Journal of Mountain Science 16(4): 778–792.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-018-5312-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface Processes, Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.Department of Hydraulic and Ocean EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainan, Chinese TaipeiChina
  3. 3.CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.University of Chinese Academy SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations